Category Archives: Education

‘Tis the Season – the ONLY Season – When It’s Safe to Prune Your Oaks!

(Click on photos to enlarge; hover cursor for captions.)

Notice something odd about the three photos above? Right. They all show dead trees. And it turns out they are all Michigan oaks – in a neighborhood, in a park and in a natural area. Oak Wilt, an invasive fungus deadly to oaks, has killed these mighty giants in Minnesota, Wisconsin and throughout Michigan, including Oakland County. Researchers like Dr. Monique Sakalidis at Michigan State are working to more thoroughly understand oak wilt and how to prevent it because at the moment, there is no cure once a red oak is infected. The good news is that most new infections can be prevented by not damaging or pruning oaks during warm weather (April to October). So we all need to know how to protect our oaks!

The Oakland County CISMA (Cooperative Invasive Species Management Area) arranged a workshop with Oak Wilt specialist, Julie Stachecki, who is also an ISA certified arborist (International Society of Arboriculture) and President of the Arboriculture Society of Michigan. She packed a lot of information into her two hour presentation! We learned how this dangerous fungus is spread and how to protect the oaks of Oakland Township. Here are some important basics and links to more detailed information. (All of the photos in this blog were taken by Julie Stachecki, except the one on the left above by Dr. Dave Roberts and two photos of oak leaves below by Cam Mannino.)

The Danger is Real…and Some of the Photos Aren’t Pretty

Oak wilt is caused by an exotic fungus (Bretziella fagacearum) that likely arrived in North America around 1900. Oak wilt can kill a tree in the Red Oak group (northern red oak, pin oak, black oak, and scarlet oak) in 6-8 weeks! Species in the White Oak group (bur oak, post oak, white oak, and swamp white oak) can also be infected but may survive, or just die more slowly. Red oaks have bristles at the tips of the leaf lobes, while white oaks have rounded lobes with no bristle. There is currently no cure for oak wilt, so prevention is crucial! Don’t injure your oak trees between March and October!

Overland Spread by Beetles

The oak wilt fungus is spread by native sap beetles (fam. Nitidulidae) that are attracted by the scent of any wound on an oak tree – for example, those caused by lawnmowers, pruning or broken limbs. These beetles can spread the fungus several miles in one year!

The beetles can arrive within 10 minutes of wounding! So prevention is critical. When wounds occur, sealing them with a pruning sealant or latex paint needs to happen quickly. The beetles are active from mid-March through October, but there are greater numbers of them from mid-March to July.

If the beetles have been feeding on the oak wilt fungus in an infected tree, they can carry the fungal spores to nearby healthy but wounded trees. Once they land on a wound with the spores on their bodies, a red oak tree will die in 6-8 weeks.

Local Spread through the Roots

Oak wilt can also spread to healthy trees through the roots of infected oaks.  Oak trees, particularly red oaks,  are connected underground by root grafts even if they are as much as 100 feet apart. The fungus will keep spreading throughout the root systems and can kill every oak tree in a neighborhood, park or forest until the root connections run out or are professionally severed

How to Protect Your Trees

Prevention is the key to protecting your oak trees. Don’t prune or injure your oak trees between March and October! Only prune oak trees between November and February (late fall or winter).

  • If the bark of your oak tree is injured in any way (e.g. by lawnmower, pruning in the growing season, wind damage) from March to October, immediately seal the wound with tree wound paint, latex paint, or clear shellac. That should keep beetles from landing on exposed tissue and protect your trees. If you can’t reach the area, call an Oak Wilt specialist.  (See below.)
  • DO NOT MOVE FIREWOOD.  It’s one of the significant ways in which oak wilt spreads.
  • An Oak Wilt Qualified Specialist can’t save your tree once infected,  but he or she can take measures to try to protect the oak trees nearby.  See the contact information for the Michigan Oak Wilt Coalition below.
  • Avoid using tree crews that are not qualified as oak wilt specialists. Confirm any diagnosis of oak wilt with an expert. Many different stresses and less lethal pests can cause symptoms of concern on oak trees. You don’t want to make treatments or cut down a tree unnecessarily.

Signs of Oak Wilt Infection

Fallen leaves from an Oak Wilt-infected tree in mid-summer. (J. Stachecki)

In June, July or August, leaves discolor to a dull olive green or turn partially brown, often near the top of the tree first. Discolored leaves then wilt from the top of the tree downward and additional leaves become brown or bronzed. Rapid leaf drop occurs as the disease progresses.  Fallen leaves are usually brown at the tips and margins and sometimes green at the base. (See photo above.)

The year after a tree is killed by oak wilt (but sometimes that fall), fungal pressure pads may form beneath the bark of the tree. The growing pressure pad pushes on the bark above it, often forming small cracks that allow beetles to access the fungus.

If You Think You Have an Oak Wilt Infected Tree:

  • Confirm any suspicion of oak wilt with an expert. Dead leaves aren’t enough since other diseases can cause similar symptoms.
  • Don’t Cut it Down Yourself!  You may make the problem worse by forcing the fungus more quickly into the roots, infecting nearby oak trees with the oak wilt fungus.
  • Again, contact an Oak Wilt Qualified Specialist.  Don’t be tempted to use just any arborist or tree service.  Specialists have passed an exam on identification and management of Oak Wilt and are required to be either an ISA Certified Arborist, Certified Forester or have a 4 year degree in a related field.  They can  provide you with the best way to protect other oaks in your yard, your neighbors’ yards, or a forest or park nearby from this deadly fungus. Management options may include tree removal, tightly covering infected firewood piles, preventative injections of nearby non-symptomatic trees, and trenching around infected trees to prevent spread through the roots to nearby trees.

Keeping the “Oak” in “Oakland”

We all know that we want to preserve the oaks for which Oakland Township and Oakland County were named. To do so, we need to take the Oak Wilt threat seriously and work as a community to prevent its spread. Even one infected tree with oaks nearby can spread and kill all the trees connected to its roots. That could potentially affect whole neighborhoods, whole parks, whole forests. So the first step is to educate ourselves and our neighbors so that we can act quickly. First, prevent any injury to oak trees between March and October. Second, immediately seal any wounds that do occur between March to October. Finally, if you suspect a tree with oak wilt, quickly hire experts to confirm the oak wilt diagnosis and to keep the infection from spreading.  So please read the information on the Michigan Oak Wilt website and tell your neighbors about how to prevent the spread of oak wilt!  We can do this!

Many thanks to Julie Stachecki of the Michigan Oak Wilt Coalition for generously sharing her photos and her time.

Resources for More Information and Help:

  • Website of the Michigan Oak Wilt Coalition for more detailed information and to find an Oak Wilt certified specialist arborist: michiganoakwilt.org
  • For reporting suspected cases of Oak Wilt: email DNR-FRD-Forest-Health@michigan.gov
  • Midwest Invasive Species Information Network: http://www.misin.msu.edu

Land Preservation Millage Renewal on November 6 Ballot in Oakland Township

The Land Preservation Millage will be on the November 6, 2018 ballot for renewal at a rate of 0.6310 of one mill. The purpose of the millage is to continue to finance the acquisition and preservation of open green spaces within Oakland Township. The green spaces acquired with millage monies are representative of the natural and rural history of our Township and are permanently protected from residential or commercial development.

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A ‘yes’ vote will NOT increase the tax rate of Township property owners beyond its current level. A ‘yes’ vote will extend the time period of the authorized millage. The annual roll-back required by the Headlee Amendment would continue after the approval of this millage renewal.  For example, this millage was initially approved in 2001 at .75 of one mill, renewed in 2006 at .6916 of one mill and the current proposal is for .6310 of one mill.

Read on to learn more about what your Land Preservation Millage has accomplished since 2001. You can also select these links to check out the Land Preservation Millage timeline and some Frequently Asked Questions to learn more. The owner of a home with $125,000 taxable value will pay less than $7 per month for this millage. The millage will be used by Oakland Township during the 10-year millage period (2021-2030) for:

  • Acquisition of land or interests in land
  • Management of Oakland Township parks’ natural areas
  • Improvements to provide public access to park natural areas
  • Long-term care of park natural areas

Protecting our Natural Heritage and Rural Character since 2001

Oakland Township residents have always been proud of the rustic character of their township and abundant open space. Development pressure has reduced the amount of open space dramatically in recent decades, but voters have consistently supported land preservation efforts to maintain the rural character that makes our place special.

Hickory Lane autumn CL

In 1940, Oakland Township was a rural community with open, agricultural fields abundant throughout the area. Woodlots and wetlands dotted the landscape in areas that weren’t suitable for farming. Today houses and other development have replaced nearly all of the farm fields. With less demand for local wood products, forested areas are actually more common. Few large tracts of land are available for preservation.

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Bear Creek Nature Park and the surrounding areas in 1940 (left) and 2017 (right). Much of Oakland Township was an open agricultural landscape until the 1960s, when residential development pressure began to accelerate.

In 2000, Oakland Township voters overwhelmingly approved a 10 year, 0.75 mill land preservation millage, managed by the Parks & Recreation Commission. 170 additional acres were purchased using the first land preservation millage and grant funds. Those new properties included a 22 acre wooded addition to Cranberry Lake Park; the 10.5 acre Paint Creek Heritage Area – Wet Prairie, with many rare plants; 60 acre Lost Lake Nature Park, with its special oak-pine barrens, and 90 acre Draper Twin Lake Park.

Sunset Draper Lake
A fall sunset illuminates the splendor of changing leaves at Draper Twin Lake Park.

Several additional large parcels became available around 2006, including the 60 acre parcel we now call Stony Creek Ravine Nature Park. The existing millage had already been allocated to previous acquisition projects, so the Parks Commission asked the voters for an early renewal of the Land Preservation Millage in 2006 at a rate of 0.6916 of one mill. Again voters overwhelmingly approved the early renewal. Over 250 acres have been protected by the land preservation millage since it was renewed in 2006.

One of the parks protected through the millage renewal is Watershed Ridge Park, shown below. At 170 acres, this park protects a variety of forests, wetlands, and open fields. Watershed Ridge Park also has several active farm fields which help preserve the agricultural heritage of Oakland Township.

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Beautiful natural areas at Watershed Ridge Park.

We also added 6 acres to Lost Lake Nature Park with access to beautiful, spring-fed Green Lake. We protected 10.5 acres at O’Connor Nature Park, where the property was donated, and the millage paid for boundary survey, environmental assessment, and appraisal. We even protected a half acre fen along the Paint Creek Trail. While small, over 140 plant species have been documented from the Fen parcel, many specialists to the mineral-rich groundwater flow that define fen wetlands.

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Shrubby cinquefoil (Dasiphora fruticosa) is a low shrub that is found in open, wet ground in high quality natural areas, like the Paint Creek Heritage Area – Fen.

As the second millage cycle ends, the parks commission is working to close on a 208 acre addition to Stony Creek Ravine Nature Park. This beautiful parcel includes streams, hills, wetlands, and beautiful old trees.

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Aerial view of the 200+ acre expansion of Stony Creek Ravine Nature Park that we hope to add in late 2018 or 2019.

Active Restoration Brings Back Birds, Blooms, and Butterflies!

The land preservation millage also helps us care for and restore the properties that we’ve protected. This allows us to preserve the natural heritage of Oakland Township for future generations. This work includes installing native prairie habitat plantings, including over 70 acres at Charles Ilsley Park, Draper Twin Lake Park, and Gallagher Creek Park.

Eastern Prairie Ilsley July
Prairie planting in the east field at Charles Ilsley Park. This area was restored using Land Preservation Millage funds and a $15,000 grant from the US Fish and Wildlife Service.

We are also restoring fire-dependent ecosystems such as prairie, oak savanna, and some wetlands by re-introducing prescribed fire. We do regular monitoring and research, like our vernal pool surveys and photo monitoring. This helps us track how the natural areas are changing over time, and if our land management work is successful.

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Spring prescribed burn at Bear Creek Nature Park, 2018.

We want you to enjoy nature in our parks! Our education and outreach includes Wednesday morning bird walks, guest speakers, volunteer opportunities, workdays, and much more. Check out the Stewardship Events page on this website to learn more!

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Birders admire warblers in tree in early May, 2018. Photo by Tom Korb.
The Land Preservation Millage Renewal  is on the ballot for the November 6, 2018 general election with this wording: 


“Shall the Charter Township of Oakland be authorized to renew a levy of up to 0.6310 of one mill for a period of ten (10) years starting with the December 2021 levy for the purpose of continuing to provide funds and financing for the timely acquisition of land, the protection of natural habitat, and the preservation of green spaces within the Township? Approval of this proposal would renew the previously authorized tax limitation increase of approximately 63 cents per $1,000.00 of taxable value on all taxable property in the Township. Revenue from the levy renewal shall be disbursed to the Charter Township of Oakland. Based upon the projected 2021 Township wide taxable value, it is estimated that this proposal would result in authorization to collect up to $924,318 of revenue in the first year (2021) if this millage renewal is authorized and levied.”

Hunters of the Sky: Program with Live Raptors November 2!

You’ve probably seen red-tailed hawks riding thermals on sunny afternoons. Or you’ve heard owls hooting  mysteriously from the woods. These birds of prey are even more amazing up close, and we have an opportunity for you to see a live hawk, owl, and falcon on November 2! You’ll also get hands-on learning with feathers, skulls, and other bird parts in the Hunters of the Sky program. Sign up today to get in on this family-friendly program at Lost Lake Nature Park, led by Leslie Science and Nature Center!

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Lannis Smith, Wildlife Program Manager at Leslie Science and Nature Center, teaches with a beautiful barred owl.
  • Hunters of the Sky – Families (Ages 4 to Adult)
  • Friday, November 2, 2018 7:00 – 8:00pm Lost Lake Nature Park Warming Shelter, 846 Lost Lake Trail, Oakland, MI 48363
  • It’s all about survival! Three engaging raptors (such as a hawk, owl, falcon) will visit Lost Lake Nature Park to demonstrate and model their amazing survival characteristics and techniques. Hand-on explorations of feathers, skulls, and other bird parts provide a stimulating introduction to the Hunters of the Sky. Presented by Leslie Science & Nature Center.
  • Residents: $5 Non-residents: $7 Register by: October 26

Natural Areas Stewardship 2017 Annual Report

After three years of consistent stewardship work in key project areas, we are beginning to see good results. New wildflower species were found at the Wet Prairie along the Paint Creek Trail. Invasive shrubs were cleared from over 20 acres at Watershed Ridge Park and Stony Creek Ravine Nature Park. Prairie species planted a few years ago at Draper Twin Lake Park and Charles Ilsley Park began to flower. And more people like you got involved in the adventure through bird walks, volunteer workdays, nest boxes, potlucks, and stewardship talks. What fun! Check out the highlights of the year below, or read the full 2017 Annual Stewardship Report (click link to view).

Volunteer Program

Volunteers contributed 637 hours in 2017! Weekly bird walks were well attended. For the first time we hosted a summer stewardship potluck to help build our conservation community. Volunteer workdays focused on garlic mustard (May), invasive shrub control (July to November), and seed collecting (October). Volunteers also helped with maintenance of native plant gardens, prescribed fire, vernal pool monitoring, and building nest boxes.

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Students from Eagle Creek Academy helped us install native trees and shrubs at Gallagher Creek Park.

Volunteer Tom Korb led the effort to revitalize nest boxes in our parks. Tom built nearly 30 nest boxes for installation at Charles Ilsley Park and Draper Twin Lake Park. We hope to see more breeding bluebirds, kestrels, and other cavity-nesting birds in our parks in the future!

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Volunteer Tom Korb led the design, construction of nest boxes for Charles Ilsley Park and Draper Twin Lake Park. Nest boxes will be installed and monitored in 2018.

Prairie Restoration with USFWS Partners for Fish and Wildlife Grants

Using our second Partners grant we prepared sites for planting 15 acres of native prairie plants at Charles Ilsley Park and 3 acres at Gallagher Creek Park. Planting was delayed until spring 2018 due to seed shortages, but that will give us a little more time to get the site in good shape. We continued maintenance of areas planted in 2015 and 2016, working to give native plants the upper hand during the critical establishment phase.

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Native plants in newly planted fields at Charles Ilsley Park provide habitat for wildlife and pollinators.

Prescribed Burns

We contracted with Plantwise LLC for spring burns at Cranberry Lake Park, Lost Lake Nature Park, and Marsh View Park. We also worked with private landowners to burn habitat adjacent to the Paint Creek Trail right-of-way, including high quality oak savanna, prairie remnants, and fen wetland. We held volunteer prescribed burn crew training again in February. The volunteer crew completed burns at Marsh View Park, Paint Creek Heritage Area—Wet Prairie, and the Art Project prairie north of Gallagher Road along the Paint Creek Trail.

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The volunteer prescribed fire crew is all smiles after a successful burn at the Paint Creek Heritage Area – Wet Prairie, Spring 2017. Photo by Sue Greenlee.

Stewardship Blog

The stewardship blog continued to thrive with regular posts from Cam Mannino. The blog also continued to serve as an up-to-date source of information about stewardship volunteer opportunities and events. We published 52 posts and had 5324 visitors, with 8797 page views. Natural Areas Notebook, oaklandnaturalareas.com

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Education Events

Stewardship hosted education events in early 2017. Topics included the importance of protecting public land in Michigan, reptiles and amphibians of Michigan, and prescribed fire in Oakland Township parks.

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David Mifsud leads a presentation about Michigan reptiles and amphibians, including the eastern massasauga rattlesnake.

Phragmites Outreach Program

We continued the Phragmites Outreach Program to help township residents get Phragmites treated on their property. We received about 33 requests for no-obligation cost estimates, and treated about 21 properties with a contractor, PLM Lake and Land Management.

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Photo monitoring is used to track the success of Phragmites treatment. This photo point at Gallagher Creek Park shows Phragmites growing thick on the edge of Silver Bell Road before the treatment program began. Photo point GCP03. August 28, 2014.

Seasonal Technicians

We had one technician return for 2017, Zach Peklo. Zach came to us from Grand Valley State University studying natural resources management with an emphasis on Geographic Information Systems. New to our crew as seasonal land stewardship technicians in 2017 were Josh Auyer and Billy Gibala. Josh graduated from Calvin College in May 2017 with a degree in Biology. Billy graduated from University of Michigan – Flint in spring 2017 with a degree in wildlife biology and a minor in regional and urban planning. Alex Kriebel also returned to our crew as a Stewardship Specialist, bringing additional experience in natural areas management from his work with Oakland County Parks and Recreation.

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(L-R) Ben, Zach, Alex, Josh, and Billy, our 2017 natural areas stewardship team.

All of our annual reports can be found on the About page.

Sign up for Volunteer Burn Crew Training – February 24

If you are interested in joining our volunteer burn crew, join us for our training workshop on Saturday, February 24, 9 am – 2:30 pm at the Paint Creek Cider Mill (4480 Orion Road, Rochester, MI 48306). We will cover reasons for using prescribed fire, preparations for conducting a fire, necessary tools, roles of each burn crew member, and ignition patterns. Training is required for new crew members, and a great refresher if you’re returning. Weather permitting we will do a small demonstration or mock burn after lunch. Snacks will be provided, but please bring your own lunch.

RSVP required to bvanderweide@oaklandtownship.org or 248-651-7810 ext. 401 by Thursday, February 22 or sooner.

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