For our second Stewardship Talk of 2019 we are excited to host Dr. Nate Haan from Michigan State University for his talk, “Monarch Butterfly Ecology and Conservation.” The talk is free and will be this Thursday, February 7, 2019 at 6:30 pm at the Paint Creek Cider Mill, 4480 Orion Road, Rochester, MI 48306. Dr. Haan will share about monarch butterfly natural history and ecology, as well as some of the current research on their decline and what we can do to save them.
Monarch butterflies are one of the most interesting and recognizable insects in the world. Every year they migrate thousands of miles, from our backyards in Michigan to mountains in central Mexico. They also have fascinating interactions with their toxic milkweed host plants. Unfortunately, monarchs have declined in recent decades and the overwintering population in Mexico is only around 20% of its former size.
Despite the wintry conditions outside, we are already gearing up for our 2019 field season! We’re excited to be outside in warmer weather again, taking care of the natural areas in our park. If this sounds fun to you, or someone you know, let them know that we’re accepting applications for our 2019 seasonal Land Stewardship Technician crew! We are accepting applications until February 15, and we have up to 3 positions available. See the full job description here.
This position is a great way to get some hands-on experience with natural areas management. Technicians will get experience with a variety of techniques for monitoring, invasive species treatment, installing native plantings, data management, and species ID. The position will be up to 20 weeks this year. After working for Oakland Township Parks our stewardship technicians have gone on to other natural resources positions, many of them full-time.
Anticipated start date is mid-April to early May, but somewhat flexible. Position would end on or before September 28, 2019. Typically work 40 hours/week Monday to Friday, with occasional weekends or evenings for special events.
To Apply: Submit cover letter, resume, and three professional references to Ben VanderWeide, Natural Areas Stewardship Manager:
Mail: Seasonal Land Stewardship Technician Application
Oakland Township Parks and Recreation
4393 Collins Road
Rochester, MI 48306
Cover letter, resume, and professional references must be received no later than February 15, 2019. For more information visit the Parks and Recreation page of the Oakland Township website, www.oaklandtownship.org, or contact Ben VanderWeide, Natural Areas Stewardship Manager, Oakland Township Parks and Recreation, at firstname.lastname@example.org, 248-651-7810 ext 401.
Two years ago, the birding group stepped onto the ice at the edge of Cranberry Lake to see a beaver lodge (above). Pretty cool! But since then, we hadn’t seen much activity around the lodge – no felled or gnawed trees, for example.
Well, an American beaver (Castor canadensis) is definitely in residence this winter! During the first week of January, one appears to have swum through the canal near the end of the lake trail. A good-sized hole had been broken in the ice, leaving large shards on either side. (See below.) And nearby there were definite signs of a foraging beaver!
The beaver must have gone right to work gathering some bark to feed on this winter. Beavers eat leaves during the summer, but in winter they feed on the soft inner bark of trees. As my husband and I looked around, we spotted several examples of this accomplished lumberjack’s work! One was only partially gnawed; perhaps a predator or a curious human interrupted its work – or maybe it just decided it had enough fodder and retired to its lodge. [Click to enlarge; hover cursor for captions.]
A tree left partially gnawed.
The largest of the trees the beaver felled.
Three small trees neatly felled by a beaver
Beavers have huge, self-sharpening, iron-fortified incisors that they use for this work. The iron makes those big buck teeth very strong and bright orange, as you can see in this taxidermy beaver on display at Seven Ponds Nature Center in Dryden.
My guess is that our Cranberry Lake beaver (it’s usually a male that gathers food during the winter) came up through the ice and felled a few trees. He then grabbed each log with his powerful jaws, dragging it under the ice and swimming with it out to his lodge. At that early time in January, it was impossible for me to get out on the thin ice to see his cache. What beavers usually do, according to the PBS Nature documentary “Leave It to Beavers” is to sink a few trees in the mud beneath the lodge with some of the branches left above the surface. That allows the beaver to feed under the ice, safe from predators like coyotes. The dark limbs above the surface also help to bring some warmth below on sunny days, keeping the ice near the cache less solid and acting as a marker for their stash of food. Clever little animals! Here’s the lodge two years ago with some trees sticking out of the ice in just that way.
Some of the trunks and branches may just be placed on the lodge for future use. That’s what this year’s beaver appears to have done – though looking through the trees made it difficult to see.
A couple of weeks later, when we’d had some colder weather, I ventured out to the lake edge again to see if any more trees had been felled. None had, but I noticed a long trail of frozen bubbles under the ice. Normally these are methane bubbles released by the bacteria that feed on plants decomposing under the ice. Perhaps this marks some leaves or twigs from the felled trees that the beaver hauled out to his lodge. But of course, the air bubbles could also be coming from the beaver, right? I wondered if this new lodge tenant had ventured out again, but found the ice too thick to break through. Muskrats, which are much smaller than beavers, also swim under the ice in winter, so I’m not sure who or what left this trail.
Two year old beavers, I learned from the Nature documentary, leave their home lodge and venture out to find an empty lodge that they can rebuild or to build a new one. On a cold day last March, I spotted what I at first assumed was a small beaver swimming toward the shore opposite the lodge. Because of its size, though, I decided it was a muskrat – but now I wonder if my first guess was correct. No way of knowing really, but I like to think so!
Young beavers sometimes need to venture out of their lodges more in the winter, because they didn’t fill their larders quite full enough in the autumn. So perhaps the swimmer I saw last March is the new tenant and local lumberjack – and perhaps not.
But if this hydro engineer sticks around, he may be making a few spots in Cranberry Lake a bit deeper each year. Beavers dig deep channels beneath their ponds because the deeper the water, the safer beavers are from predators. According to the documentary, out west during the 2002 droughts, farmers and ranchers with beavers in their ponds had the only water available for livestock – and of course wildlife gathered at those ponds as well. Beavers keep a lot of water on the landscape by deepening streams and creating ponds with their dams. Of course beavers can also cause trouble with their architectural abilities, flooding roads and human housing, but luckily the documentary explains how clever stewards in Canada are using the beavers’ natural attraction to the sound of trickling water to encourage them to build in safer places.
Usually young beavers don’t mate until their third year. If the beaver who felled the trees this January sticks around and is lucky enough to come across a mate, maybe we’ll discover a whole family of beavers one of these days! I’d just love to photograph a beaver sitting out of the water, but since they usually appear just before dawn or after sunset, no luck so far. Fortunately, a photographer named Blake A. Mann got a lovely photo of one chewing contently on a stick and graciously shared it through iNaturalist.org. He’s definitely inspired me to keep looking!
Winter walks can yield odd – and quite amazing – surprises. For example, how about seeing large tadpoles wriggling just under the ice at Bear Creek Nature Park’s playground pond? My husband and I couldn’t believe what we were seeing at first and neither could members of the birding group last Wednesday – but there they were.
About a half dozen of them cork-screwed up to the surface, snatched tiny bits of green Water Meal(Wolffiacolumbiana) floating within a hole in the ice and quickly wriggled back into the depths. Tadpoles in the dead of winter? A first for us and for many of you readers too, I imagine!
After doing a little research, I discovered that this is not as strange as it first appeared. Evidently, Green Frogs (Rana clamitans) lay their eggs from April until autumn. So some tadpoles hatch from their eggs late in the year and overwinter under the ice. It’s not easy. The water under the ice is low in oxygen since no air reaches the surface, and currents can’t mix oxygen into the still water.
When ice forms on a pond, the adult Green Frogs, which is the most common frog at in the Playground Pond, spend the winter resting on the mud below the pond. During hibernation, they can absorb sufficient oxygen through their skin. Their tadpoles, however, can swim and feed during the winter, provided it is not too severe. I immediately wondered, “Why don’t they freeze when the temperature drops?” Well, the North Woodlands website of the North Woodlands Association in New Hampshire explains that it all depends on the harshness of the winter. Tadpoles can move and feed because they have more skin surface related to their body size, or a “higher surface area to volume ratio.” As a result, they absorb enough available oxygen through their skin to power their winter activity.
Also, though the temperature may be 32° near the ice, as the tadpoles scurry back down into the pond, the temperature rises to 38 or 39° and may be 40° on the bottom. Perhaps that’s why I never got a perfect shot of one wriggling at the surface; it’s just too cold to stay there for long. Or at least that’s my excuse and I’m sticking to it!
By the way, it’s possible that the tadpoles are Bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus) too. They can often take 2 years to metamorphose into adult frogs. But Green Frogs, like the one below, are the ones I most commonly see at the Playground Pond.
If those tough, wriggly tadpoles survive winter under the ice, they may be getting a jump on the tadpoles that hatch in the spring by being bigger at an earlier date. When the weather warms, the winter tadpoles are ready to metamorphose sooner and grow into bigger frogs. And bigger frogs are better at defending their food territories and finding mates. Maybe we should take that as inspiration for all of us to keep moving in cold weather!
Collecting wildflower seed here in our township is an enjoyable, labor intensive activity that proceeds through several stages in all four seasons of the year. The flowers do all the work in the summer by producing their colorful blooms. Then the humans – volunteers and Parks staff – take over the work in the other three seasons by harvesting, cleaning and sowing the seed.
Since we’ve just completed the cycle for 2018, I thought we’d share how this ancient cycle of work, organized each year by Dr. Ben VanderWeide, our Natural Areas Stewardship manager, happens throughout the year.
Winter and Spring: Spreading Seed
Readers may remember the blog from last April, when Ben, his stewardship tech Alex Kreibel and I spread wildflower seed in Bear Creek Nature Park. We spent a cool spring morning sowing seed by hand as it’s been done for thousands of years.
For larger projects we might spread seed with a special native seed drill or broadcast spreader attached to a tractor.
The seeds we spread take their time for the next few years, sprouting a bit of greenery to catch the sunlight as they grow deep roots. Those roots help them survive drought like all prairie plants. In a few years, when the roots have grown deep, the plants we sow finally bloom and produce more seed. Luckily, nature has also dispersed seeds for countless years. With a little help from us humans through prescribed fire or invasive plant control, native seeds already in the soil will also find their way to the sunlight and grow!
Summer: Blossoms Attract Pollinators
Plants mostly rely on wind and insects – beetles, flies, butterflies – to move pollen from one plant to the next. Pollination is the process by which male genetic material (in the pollen) is transferred from the anther of one plant to the female pistil of another plant (or in self-pollinating plants to pistils on the same plant). If the pollen lands on a compatible plant, it will germinate grow a pollen tube to conduct the sperm to the potential seeds (ovules) in the ovary of the second plant.
Wind-pollinated plants like grasses and some trees produce lots of pollen and cast it to the wind, taking a chance that a few grains will land in a receptive flower on another plant. But our insect-pollinated plants use a more targeted method to transfer pollen from one flower to the next. These plants create tempting blossoms full of color, scent, nectar and, of course, pollen to attract and reward pollinators, ensuring that some will be transported to another flower on the insect courier.
We’ll follow the three insect-pollinated plants below, from various parks, through our seed collecting cycle: Joe Pye (Euthrochium maculatum), Stiff Goldenrod (Solidago rigida) and White Snakeroot (Ageratina altissima). [Click on photos to enlarge; hover cursor for captions.]
Autumn: Voilà! Fertile Seeds Ready for Harvesting
Here are the same three wildflowers in their seeding phase in the early autumn. (Please note that two of the three photos below were generously provided by iNaturalist photographers, Ken Potter and mikaelamazzeo94.)
And again, some readers will remember from a November blog that while nature was dispersing seed through wind, water and gravity this autumn, we humans were out among them, snipping selectively. Good stewardship requires gathering some native seed so that 1) the seeds get to spots that need native seed, often our active restoration areas where seeds might not reach on their own; and 2) so that the township can save a bit of money on expensive native wildflower seed!
Winnowing Out the Seed by Hand – and Foot!
On December 6, 2018 the final stage of our seed collecting came to fruition as Ben taught us techniques for separating the seed from the plants to get them ready to spread. Volunteers and staff gathered at the Parks Department pole barn on Buell Road on a cold winter morning to push the dry stalks through various sizes of screening.
For some plants, that meant wearing leather gloves to rub the stalks against the screen so that the seed would fall into the tub underneath, as we did with White Snakeroot(Ageratinaaltissima) shown below.
For plants with sturdy structures, like the round heads of Bee Balm(Monarda fistulosa) below, it meant putting a screened box on a plastic sheet on the floor and actually treading on the seed heads to help loosen the seed!
Once the seeds were separated, they were turned over to Ben’s current stewardship specialist, Alyssa Radzwion, and volunteer Dena Scher who poured the seeds into bags, labeled them with their scientific names and recorded the information.
So here is our haul for this year!
If we have more volunteers to gather seed (hint, hint…), we could harvest even more in 2019! So consider the ancient pleasure of sowing seed in the spring, gathering seed on an autumn day, and cleaning seed at a good old fashioned work bee next December. The hum of voices, the laughter, the earthy fragrances of different seeds – it’s a fun way to meet neighbors and help nature grow more of those beautiful wildflowers that are beginning to carpet our restored prairies. And to top it all off, you get to feel like a kid again as you rub, stomp and get covered in tiny silk parachutes!