Tag Archives: Chorus Frog

Beauty in Every Season: A Year-End Review of our Parks and Natural Areas

Oakland Township Stewardship Manager Ben VanderWeide and I both got inspired by the idea of a year-end reflection on some of  the remarkable sights in our parks and natural areas over the last year. Nature excels in surprising and delighting any curious observer with its ability to come back from adversity, in some cases to even thrive in difficult circumstances. That ability to keep on growing and creating in the face of any obstacle can be a great inspiration in challenging times.

Blog and photos by Cam Mannino

So as the snow falls, please sit back in a comfortable chair with a warm drink and savor  some highlights from the four seasons of 2017 here in Oakland Township.

Winter 2017: Serenity Rises as the Snow Falls

The Tree Line Between Two Prairies, Charles Ilsley Park

Sometimes we just need a little less hubbub after the holidays and the parks provide a  peaceful escape. In general, the only sounds are the wind in bare branches, the occasional calls of the year ’round birds and the tapping  of energetic woodpeckers foraging in the tree bark. And other times,  when we feel  a bit house-bound and crave crisp air on red cheeks,  a winter walk provides little discoveries unavailable in other seasons. During one deep freeze last winter, the weekly birding group stepped out on the ice at Cranberry Lake to inspect a beaver lodge. And a few weeks later,  I plopped down in the snow for a closer look at 3-D ice dendrites standing upright on a frozen puddle! Folks enjoyed the fine skating rink at Marsh View Park, but some who fancied wild surroundings skated on Twin Lake. On sunny winter days, shadows are always sharp and any spot of color, like the brilliant red of a male cardinal,  catches my  eye in winter’s clear, white light. Hiking in winter can be wonderful; just be sure you’re bundled up for it! (Click on pause button for longer captions.)

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Spring 2017: Buds, First Blooms, Migrators Flying in by Night and the Ebullient Symphony of Courting Birds and Frogs

Golden Alexanders carpet the woods near the Wet Prairie along the Paint Creek Trail

Ah, mud-luscious spring! The tiny Chorus and Wood Frogs thawed out after their winter freeze and sang lustily from vernal ponds. In early spring, the birders spotted a crayfish at Bear Creek who’d climbed out of her chimney with eggs under her tail and was lumbering toward the pond. Some spring avian migrators quickly passed through, and we bird watchers were lucky to spot a few special visitors. An unusual American Pipit appeared before my camera lens one afternoon at Gallagher Creek Park on its way to its breeding grounds in the far north. While others, like the Tree Swallow or the Eastern Meadowlark, settled in for the summer to raise their young. After last year’s controlled burn, native Lupines appeared along the Paint Creek Trail. And in May, Ben spotted a rare sight, a frilly spread of rare Bogbean flowers in a kettle wetland at Bald Mountain State Recreation Area off Kern Road. Snow melt and bright green buds always offer an irresistible invitation to come out and join the bustle and music of spring!

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Summer 2017: Butterflies Galore as Restored Prairies Began to Bloom

East Prairie Ilsley 2017 (1)
Member of the birding group at Charles Ilsley Park in July

Summer! The very word conjures up a coloring box assortment of butterflies hovering over prairie wildflowers. Birds constructed their nests and later wore themselves out feeding noisy, demanding fledglings. We birders particularly enjoyed close looks at a male Rose-breasted Grosbeak sharing egg-warming duties near a Bear Creek path. The birders laughed in surprise watching  a passive/aggressive pair of Canada Geese successfully discourage the presence of a Green Heron by simply swimming uncomfortably close to it.  A family ambled along a path at Draper Twin Lake Park, headed for a morning fishing expedition.  The birding group, binoculars in hand,  spotted an Indigo Bunting while walking the new paths through the prairies at Charles Ilsley Park, increasingly spangled with colorful native wildflowers as restoration proceeds. A Great Horned Owl stared at the delighted birding group through a scrim of leaves near Bear Creek marsh.  Every path in the township hummed with life during the summer months. But that’s what we all expect of summer, right?

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Autumn 2017:  Birds Departed South, and Fall Wildflowers Bloomed

Autumn color at Cranberry Lake Park

Tundra Swans flew in formation overhead,  as migrators of all kinds, like the Hermit Thrush, rode the north wind down to southern climes. But as they departed, nature offered a consolation.  Many native wildflowers bloomed in the cool weather as they faithfully do each year. Asters formed carpets of color everywhere, from meadow to marsh! At the Wet Prairie on the Paint Creek Trail,  tiny Ladies Tresses orchids, Grass of Parnassus with its delicately striped petals, and vivid purple Fringed Gentian intrigued me again by emerging in the chill of early autumn. Native bumblebees pushed their way into Bottle Gentian flowers at Gallagher Creek Park and the Wet Prairie. Butterflies still sipped nectar from late fall blooms. The birders identified ducks of all kinds assembled in rafts on Cranberry Lake. Rattling cries alerted me to the presence of  Belted Kingfishers who scouted for prey at  both Bear Creek’s pond and Cranberry Lake. Ben dipped his net into a marsh at Charles Ilsley Park to show us tadpoles that overwinter on the muddy surface beneath the water. So much life as the year 2017 began to ebb!

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Parks Full of Life All Year ‘Round. Aren’t We Lucky?

As a direct result of the foresight of township residents who have supported the Parks Commission and land preservation, native plants, wildlife, birds, and a beautifully diverse combination of habitats are being restored and preserved in Oakland Township. I want to share my appreciation for that foresight and for the hard work and knowledge of Ben VanderWeide (my kind and able supervisor and editor), other parks volunteers, my fellow birders and park staff.  And at the end of the year, I thank all of you who read, comment on and/or follow Natural Areas Notebook. It’s wonderful to be learning more all the time about the natural world – and then to have this opportunity to share what I’m learning with all of you. On to 2018!

Photo of the Week: Early Spring Frogs Thaw Out and Start Singing

 

This Chorus Frog in mid-cheep is thawed and singing, but spent the winter frozen.

Early spring frogs have resurrected and their music fills the air! When the first ice of last winter formed on these little amphibians, they reacted by producing a glucose anti-freeze. According to Bernd Heinrich’s book, Winter World, “In about fifteen hours, the frog is frozen solid except for the insides of its cells.  Its heart stops. No more blood flows. It no longer breathes. By most definitions, it is dead.” But as the weather warms, chorus frogs, wood frogs, and spring peepers thaw out and begin to serenade their mates in your local vernal pool or wetland. Spring Peepers (Pseudacris crucifer) are nocturnal, but you can hear Chorus Frogs (genus Pseudacris) and Wood Frogs (Rana sylvatica) singing all day. Enjoy nature’s spring miracle!

THIS WEEK AT BEAR CREEK: Icy Trails and…Frozen Frogs?

Marsh colors 2winter2015

Cam in red winter coat BC
Blog post and photos by Cam Mannino

The red blush of Red Osier Dogwoods (Cornus sericea) at the edges of Bear Creek’s wetlands provides very welcome color in the brown, gray and white world of a Michigan winter.   The last week of the year, tiny beads of ice fell from the sky for hours,  covering the trails and making for tricky walking.  But at least you’ll never lose your way!  Though the fields are mottled brown and white, the icy trails shine bright white in the landscape.  And deer trails through the thickets are readily apparent, too.

Bare branches and ice make it possible in the winter to really see the southernmost pond in the park near Snell Road.  It’s hidden by surrounding foliage in the summer which probably is why so many warblers and other migrants spent time there in the spring and fall.

Hidden pond at BC
Bear Creek’s southernmost pond near Snell Road is most visible in the winter.

A Muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus) at the marsh had evidently walked across the icy slush either to or from its feeding push-up before the slush turned to ice.  Perhaps you can just make out its frozen footprints in this photo.

muskrat trail near push up marsh
A muskrat left a trail in the icy slush that led to or from its feeding push-up in the marsh and across the ice.

A group of hardy American Tree Sparrows (Spizella arborea) repeatedly darted from low bushes down onto the reeds of the marsh.  What could they be finding to eat?  Perhaps seeds, perhaps some frozen insects that mistakenly hatched in the unseasonably warm weather before the ice?  No doubt skills these little birds developed on the tundra during the summer make finding food here seem like fledgling’s play!  Aren’t they nicely camouflaged for this grey and brown time of year?

Tree sparrow in the marsh
A Tree Sparrow finding food in the frozen marsh.

Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), of course, found a small area of open water where they could feed.  Most of their compatriots have moved south a bit, but some still probe the depths at the Center Pond and the marsh.

Mallard in Center Pond2
Mallards find a small area of open water.

Ice takes so many beautiful forms this time of year.  Forming on the Playground Pond , it looked as though it were embossed on some elegant blue/gray satin.

ice on playground pond
Ice forming patterns on the Playground Pond

On grass stems, heavy frost looked granular and spiky.

Frost on grass stems
Heavy frost on grass stems

And doesn’t heavy frost also do a lovely job of tracing the shape of this Queen Anne’s Lace?

Iced queen anne's lace
Heavy frost outlining a Queen Anne’s Lace blossom

Winter is a time of ice and stark shadows so be prepared for more photos of both as the season moves on!

So with all this ice, how do frogs survive the winter?  No, not deep in the mud…

Frog in duckweed
A green frog in summer

It’s true that some frogs, like the ubiquitous Green Frogs (Rana clamitans) of the Center Pond, are spending the winter under the pond ice.

Like the turtles, their metabolism slows drastically to preserve their oxygen during hibernation.  Unlike turtles, though, they can’t bury themselves in the mud because they need to absorb oxygen from the water through their skin.  So they may have a light coating of mud or simply lay inert on the pond bottom waiting for spring. At times, they may even swim slowly through the water.  TadpoleIt can take 2-3 years for a Green Frog tadpole to develop into a frog, so some of their tadpoles are below the ice as well and are reportedly a bit more mobile than the adult frogs.

The striking Leopard Frog, less common in Bear Creek and across the state, also hibernates below the ice.

leopard frog
The Northern Leopard Frog also hibernates on the bottom of ponds at Bear Creek.
Frogs that Freeze!

Incredibly, the smallest frogs of early spring actually freeze in the winter and thaw out in the spring!

The Wood Frog (Rana sylvatica), for example, finds a crevice in wood or a rock or simply under leaves, and waits.

Wood frog
A Wood Frog burrows into leaves for the winter, freezes, stops breathing, no heartbeat – and then thaws in the spring!

According to biologist Bernd Heinrich in his book, Winter World, when ice begins to form on any part of its small body, an alarm reaction makes a Wood Frog release adrenaline which signals the glycogen in its liver to turn to glucose which functions like anti-freeze.  “In about fifteen hours, the frog is frozen solid except for the insides of its cells.  Its heart stops.  No more blood flows.  It no longer breathes.  By most definitions, it is dead.” But they thaw in the spring!  As Scientific American describes it, “…when the hibernaculum [the place where an animal hibernates] warms up above freezing, the frog’s frozen portions will thaw, and its heart and lungs resume activity–there really is such a thing as the living dead!”  How amazing is that, eh???  Spring Peepers (Pseudacris crucifer) and Chorus Frogs (genus Pseudacris) can do this as well.

frog and reflections2
A Wood Frog in a vernal pool near Gunn Road

These small frogs live mostly on land.  Once they thaw, however, they quickly go to vernal pools to breed.  Because vernal pools are created from snow and ice melt, these frogs do better after a snowy winter.  Their frozen hibernation in shallow places allows them to thaw quickly in the early spring and  mate in these temporary pools, safe from predators like fish or turtles who need permanent ponds.  The tadpoles of these early spring species become frogs much more quickly than the Green Frog’s do, in a matter of weeks or months,  since the vernal pools, like the one near Gunn Road, shrink or disappear as summer comes on.

So nature does it again!  As we tread gingerly along the icy paths of Bear Creek, we can imagine Green Frogs sprawled along the bottom of the pond and tiny spring frogs frozen under leaves or in tree bark waiting for an almost literal rebirth in the spring.  We humans use our complex brains and fire fueled by ancient plants  to survive an icy winter, while  little frogs use massive amounts of homemade antifreeze.  Ice requires a lot of different adaptations for survival and over thousands of years, nature, as always, finds a way.

*Footnote:  As well as Oakland Township Stewardship Manager, Dr. Ben VanderWeide, my sources for information are as follows: Ritland, D. B., & Brower, L. P. (1991);Stokes Nature Guides:  A Guide to Bird Behavior Volumes 1-3, Allaboutbirds.org, the website of the Cornell Ornithology Lab at Cornell University; Wikipedia; http://www.butterfliesandmoths.org; Herbarium of the University of Michigan at michiganflora.net; various Michigan Field Guides by Stan Tekiela; Butterflies of Michigan Field Guide by Jaret C. Daniels; University of Wisconsin's Bug Lady at www4.uwm.edu/fieldstation/naturalhistory/bugoftheweek/ for insect info http://www.migrationresearch.org/mbo/id/rbgr.html for migration info; invaluable wildflower identification from local expert, Maryann Whitman; experienced birder Ruth Glass, bird walk leader at Stoney Creek Metro Park for bird identification; Birds of North America Online; Audubon.org, Nature in Winter by Donald Stokes, Trees in My Forest by Bernd Heinrich, Winter World by Bernd Heinrich, Savannah River Ecology Lab (Univ of Georgia), Tortoise Trust website www.tortoisetrust.org and other sites as cited in the text.