Tag Archives: Red Admiral

Bear Creek Nature Park: Color! Song! A Sensory Trip Through Early Spring

The dry stalks of native Little Bluestem grasses paint a splash of soft orange on the somber canvas of spring..

Gray clouds blanket our April skies in Michigan – but the occasional bright blue day or a beam of pale sunlight slipping between the rain clouds can lift our spirits in a giddy instant. The earth emerges from its snow cover in shades of gray and brown – but summer birds return dressed in their spring finery, ready to join others in exuberant song.

Photos and text by Cam Mannino

Hibernators poke their heads from tree holes or slip out of the leaf litter or swim up from thawing ponds, ready to nurture a new generation of young. Early spring takes its time, offering us just a few tastes here and there of the colorful bustle ahead as the days grow longer.

Visitor Birds Fly In Bearing Color and Song on Their Bright Wings

I hope you’ve been able to open a window or step out your door to listen to the birds’ dawn chorus in the last few days. Just in case, I thought I’d play a recording I made outside our home last Sunday morning. If you increase your volume,  you’ll hear the insistent call of Northern Cardinal, the buzzing call of a Red-winged Blackbird, the “kwirrr call of the Red-bellied Woodpecker (Melanerpes carolinus), the “tweeeeets” of American Goldfinches (Spinus tristis) and in the background, Canada Geese (Branta canadensis) high overhead, plus a few smaller birds twittering along.  It’s a joyful noise after a cold winter.

The male Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis) you heard above, of course, has provided splashes of scarlet against the snow all winter.  But now some old friends are arriving for the summer, brightening up an April day. Members of our birding group heard the high pitched whistling calls of Cedar Waxwings (Bombycilla cedrorum) and then spotted a small group that had settled into trees near a Bear Creek Nature Park wetland. The yellow tips of their tails and yellow bellies added a spot of sunshine on a blue/gray morning. Though Waxwings can stay here year ’round, I see Waxwings less often in the winter. I’m glad some of them choose to nest in Bear Creek each year.

One of a group of Cedar Waxwings seen by the birding group.

As a friend and I skirted the eastern edge of the Center Pond one afternoon, we heard a splash and looked up to see a female Belted Kingfisher (Megaceryle alcyon) flying up into a tree with her quarry. She swallowed it, though, before I got her picture. Her blue and rust colored belts show that she’s a female.

The male has only one blue belt. Fortunately, last Sunday, the male was at the Center Pond. When my husband and I arrived, the kingfisher was very agitated, calling as he dashed from tree to tree. These kingfishers don’t sing. At best, their fast, rat-a-tat rattle provides the other birds’ vocals with a little background percussion.

The gorgeous male Wood Duck (Aix sponsa) brought more than his share of brilliant color to the chilly waters of the Playground Pond. Together he and his mate will scout for a nesting hole high in the top of a tree near water in the woods nearby. Wood Duck nestlings are “precocial,”  meaning born ready to go – eyes open, covered in feathers and, in their case, outfitted with claws for climbing. Only days after birth, they claw their way up to the edge of their nest cavity and leap into the air, following their mother’s calls below.  They fall harmlessly into the leaf litter or water and join her in the the nearest pond to feed. Amazing feat for a baby bird! The adult birds make quite a racket when taking flight, the male’s “zeet” call is very different from the female’s “oo-eek.”

Though Wood Ducks generally choose a mate in January, this one seemed to have arrived alone. A few days later, his mate showed up.

The diminutive Ruby-crowned Kinglet (Regulus calendula) repeatedly sang his lovely up-and-down spring song while he hopped about frenetically in a cluster of vines near the Playground Pond. Through the tangled branches, I could see the red crown raised slightly atop his head, but never got a clear shot. Luckily, gifted local photographer, Joan Bonin, got a lovely photo when a kinglet posed on a branch for her at Holland Ponds in Shelby Township. Thanks to Joan for sharing her excellent photographs for the blog!

In his brilliant iridescent green head, yellow beak and orange legs, the Mallard  (Anas platyrhynchos) seemed to be leading his more modestly dress mate around the Playground Pond one afternoon. But when the female Mallard spotted me, she turned and swam away, quacking insistently until the male looked around nervously, saw me and fled toward her, scrambling awkwardly across some submerged logs to catch up with his mate. By the way, that famous  “Quack!” is only given by Mallard females. Have a listen to it along with male’s very different call at this link.

A pair of mallards cruised the Playground Pond, keeping an eye on the Wood Duck.

Near the Walnut Lane, a wonderful ripple of song flowed down from the treetops. After a bit of peering around, high above I spotted an American Robin holding forth repeatedly with his up-and-down lilting spring song. I recorded his music and then looked up and took a photo from an angle I hadn’t noticed before. I got a worm’s eye view, you might say, of that very sharp, probing beak and felt glad it wasn’t being thrust in my direction!

Over in the marsh, the male Red-winged Blackbirds have been clucking and buzzing from atop the cat-tails for a couple of weeks as a way of establishing territory. Last week, the females began to arrive. Maybe their dark striping lets them blend safely into the shadows while they tend their nests among the stems down near the water. (Click on photos to enlarge; hover cursor for captions.)

And Then the Frogs Join the Chorus!

After one warm April day, the hibernating spring frogs broke into song. Every wetland at Bear Creek trilled with the high-pitched peeping of Chorus Frogs (genus Pseudacris) and lower chuckling gurgle of the Wood Frogs. Both have been frozen all winter with no heartbeat and no brain waves but enough built-in anti-freeze in their cells to somehow stay alive. And as soon as they warm up, they’re ready to sing!

The Wood Frogs, like the one above,  are easier to spot because they croak while floating on the surface,  flexing their legs in an occasional kick. The thrust creates concentric circles in the water around them, so I look for the little masked frogs in the middle of those circles. Most Chorus frogs are harder to see, usually huddled on, against or under logs. I haven’t spotted one yet this spring, (though their piercing songs can be deafening up close! Here’s a photo, though, from a previous year.

A Chorus Frog in mid-cheep.

Some of our local Chorus Frogs, Spring Peepers, (Pseudacris crucifer) are nocturnal. I imagine that the Bear Creek Nature Park neighbors are hearing them when the sun sets, or will shortly. If you see one sleeping on a leaf during the day as I did once, you’ll see the “X” on its back just behind its head, though it’s hard to see in this shot. Isn’t it tiny?

Spring peepers are the nocturnal spring frog you’re hearing at night.

Other Hibernators Emerge…

The Raccoon (Procyon lotor) that I watch for every year in the oak-hickory forest has already given birth to four kits.  One of them is what’s sometimes called a “blond morph”; it’s not an albino, just a different morph or phenotype of the raccoon. I saw a blond adult raccoon a few years ago in the same tree so that trait must be in the local gene pool. The four kits (one is barely visible at the back right) seem to be laying across their sleeping mother’s back in order  to get a good look at me. She’s probably catching up on her sleep after hunting all night to feed these youngsters!

Four raccoon kits , three of whom were checking me out. The one on the right is a light phenotype, which is unusual but not extremely rare.

A couple other hibernators made their first appearance in the last two weeks.  An Eastern Chipmunk (Tamias striatus), that had dozed off and on all winter in its multi-chambered den, emerged and just sat quietly in a patch of sunlight along the entrance trail. The light must take some getting used to after months underground, just waking now and then to eat stored nuts and seeds.

A quiet Chipmunk sat in the sunlight, enjoying being out its underground den after a long winter.

A pair of Midland Painted Turtles (Chrysemys picta marginata) kept each other company on a log in the Playground Pond last week. The slightly warmer water must have signaled them to leave their winter torpor in the mud below and swim up into the light and air. I wondered if these two were a pair; the lower one maintained a steady stare at the higher one, who paid no attention while I was there. They both probably were just staring off into the distance, though, as turtles often do.

Painted Turtles emerged from the mud below into the light of a rainy day at the Playground Pond

Over in the marsh, a whole group of them gathered in the reeds and assumed exactly the same pose in order to soak up the sun on their dark shells.

A group of Painted Turtles bask in identical poses in the marsh.

A couple Snapping Turtles (Chelydra serpentina) surfaced in the marsh as well. One fed with its head down as it cruised the marsh, eating vegetation. It looked just like a slowly moving green lump! But the other, much smaller, was basking with its entire body encased in vivid green Duckweed (genus Lemna). It seems very content with the look, and probably feeling, it had created, eh?

A small Snapping Turtle basking in a covering of duckweed.

Plants Begin to Bloom…and Butterflies (and others) aren’t Far Behind!

Just as spring was breaking and icy puddles were melting, I came across a little stream burbling through Bear Creek Nature Park’s eastern woods. This streams runs out of the Center Pond toward the marsh, joining Bear Creek after it leaves the march. Such a lovely spring sound!

On the north side of the Center Pond last week, the Willows (genus Salix) bloomed and (hooray!) we got our first glimpse this year of butterflies – and other pollinators.  First we saw one of the hibernating butterflies, the Mourning Cloak (Nymphalis antiopa). It looked a bit ragged from having spent the winter in a tree cavity or under loose bark on the snow-covered ground. It’s often the first butterfly I see in the spring. Mourning cloaks generally don’t pollinate much because they sip tree sap or the honeydew of aphids, rather than nectar from flowers. This one might have been displaying in order to attract a female.

Mourning Cloak on a blooming willow.

On the same plant, a migrator, the Red Admiral (Vanessa atalanta) posed. It does sip nectar but it also competes with other males for territory by showing off its flying skills. Perhaps that’s why this one was flitting busily from limb to limb.

A Red Admiral had migrated from the south, probably Texas, to land on this willow near the Center Pond last Sunday.

On one bloom, we saw what appeared a small Wasp (maybe suborder Apocrita). It seemed very busy enjoying the willow’s pollen.  According to Wikipedia, unlike the better known wasps, like Yellowjackets (fam. Vespidae), most wasps are solitary with each female living and breeding alone.

A solitary wasp on willow blooms.

Over in a wetland on the west side of the marsh, the strange blossom of Skunk Cabbage (Symplocarpus foetidus) had thrust itself up out of the mud. Its purple and yellow spathe covers a tiny spike of petal-less flowers inside. The smell of skunk cabbage attracts early spring flies that pollinate this sci-fi looking blossom. It releases a skunk-like smell and a bitter taste when bruised which means most predators stay away, too. The stem of Skunk Cabbage remains beneath the ground and the green leaves rise after the flowers. Odd, how this eccentric plant with the nasty scent seems to reverse my expectations of how plants grow in the spring!

The flower of the Skunk Cabbage rises from the mud with a spike of tiny flowers protected by the purple and yellow cover of the spathe.

The brightest colors in the woods now, though, are the vivid greens of Moss (members of the Bryophytes). Spring light sifts through bare limbs providing enough sunlight to feed these interesting, ancient plants. The leafy green parts of moss are “gametophytes” that produce the gametes, sperm and ova. Once spring raindrops rinse the sperm across the surface of the moss to a waiting ovum, fertilization occurs and a tall thin “sporophyte” rises from the green surface. The sporophyte will eventually release it spores. These spores initiate thin filaments called the “protonema” out of which grow new gametophytes, starting a new patch of moss.

Here are what I’m guessing are three different stages of moss growing on the same tree near the marsh. Or maybe its three different mosses? I’m too much of an amateur naturalist to know.  I do know that I love the green glow of moss in the dappled light of the forest. (If you are knowledgeable about mosses, please feel free to correct my guesses and help me identify them! )

If mosses just don’t do it for you, don’t despair.  Thanks to last fall’s forestry mowing north of the pond, sun has already reached the sunny faces of the Blood Root (Sanguinaria canadensis). I admire its leafy cloak that rises with the flower wrapped inside.

Bloodroot bloomed early this year because sunlight reached it after the forestry mowing.

The first tender leaves and buds of the woodland wildflower, Spring Beauty (Claytonia virginica) are already rising at the feet of trees in the Oak-Hickory forest.

And out in the eastern meadow, a Pussy Willow (Salix discolor) began to bud a few weeks ago, while it peacefully hosts a wide assortment of developing insects within its pine cone-shaped Willow galls. Last Sunday, it had bloomed, but the insects didn’t seem to be issuing forth yet.

Slip on Your Boots and Your Raincoat!  Spring is Singing Its Siren Song

Song sparrow (Melospiza melodia) singing.

Spring’s a great time to act like a kid again. Try heading for the park on a rainy day and let the sounds and sights of spring cheer you like they did when you were small. Slosh through a puddle.  Squelch through some mud.  Leave your earbuds at home – and pause, eyes closed,  for a short serenade by a Robin or a Song Sparrow.  Use your binoculars to scan the wetlands for tiny frogs, their throats bulging with song. Let your color-starved eyes feast on  the yellow of a Waxwing’s belly, the emerald shine of a Mallard’s head,  the exotic, multi-colored pattern of a  Wood Duck’s plumage.  Swish your palm across a soft cushion of a vivd green moss. Perhaps even get close enough to a skunk cabbage to make your nose wrinkle. Our senses need a good workout after being indoors for so long.  Treat yourself to a walk in the park. I can pretty much guarantee you’ll come home  happier than when you left.  Works for me every single time.

This Week at Bear Creek: Summer’s Door Opens – Baby Animals and Lots More Butterflies

Blog post and photos by Cam Mannino
Blog post and photos by Cam Mannino

June is the start of summer for me.  (I don’t wait for the equinox.) Courtship is complete and birds are nesting.  Young animals born in the early weeks of spring are old enough to begin exploring on their own.  And butterflies either arrive from far-flung locales or begin to emerge from their chrysalises or from under the bark in which they have overwintered.  Tadpoles wriggle in every pond and spring green slowly turns deeper and more lush.  Let’s open the door to the summer months at Bear Creek.


Raccoon peaking from White Oak
Raccoon peeking out from a tall tree in the western woods.

The Raccoon’s (Procyon lotor) offspring, known as “kits,”   are evidently living at a new address.  My reliable sources tell me the hole in the tree on the western side of the woods doesn’t show much activity.  However, ’tis the season for raccoon kits so they are out there somewhere!  Here’s a curious raccoon kit peeking out at me two years ago from the big hole while his siblings entertained themselves by climbing up inside the tree and sliding back down.

Raccoons are extremely clever animals.  In captivity, they can quickly learn how to open complicated latches and then “remember the solution to the task for up to three years.” (Wikipedia)  To see raccoons in the woods, it’s essential to be as quiet as possible because they have outstanding hearing.  They can hear earthworms moving underground!  With their hyper-sensitive front paws, they eat a wide range of foods – bird eggs, amphibians, fish, insects, human garbage (unfortunately) and in the fall before hibernation, acorns and walnuts.  Last year we saw an albino raccoon in the big hole so keep an eye out!

The Eastern Chipmunks (Tamias striatus) will have given birth to their first litter of four or five babies who spent about 6 weeks in the burrow under ground and now hang out with their parents for two weeks before heading off on their own.

baby chipmunk
Baby chipmunks spend 6 weeks in the burrow, two weeks outside with adults and then they’re on their own.

The adults will have another litter in the early autumn.  Like rabbits, chipmunks are an important source of food for many animals, hence the need for many offspring.  They themselves will eat bird’s eggs, small frogs, insects, worms, as well as all kinds of nuts and seeds.  We’ll talk more about them in the fall as they stuff their cheek pouches to prepare for hibernation.

adult chipmunk
Chipmunks have two litters, spring and fall, of four or five offspring each time.

Ben’s seen two wonderful birds in the park in the last few weeks, residents that will stay all summer.

catbird
The catbird does “miaow” but he also sings a complicated song composed of mimicked bits of other birdsong.

Male Gray Catbirds (Dumetella carolinensis) offer beginning “birders”  the easiest call to remember; they actually make a very distinctive “miaou” just like a small cat when courting or feeling threatened by predators.  Once you hear the mew, look in a nearby thicket for a sleek gray bird with a black cap, because catbirds generally fly low and perch in shrubs or small trees.  While establishing his territory, however, the male perches at the top of a small tree or bush (the proverbial “catbird seat”) and sings a fabulous, complicated song, stringing together mimicked song fragments of other birds’ songs. To me, it always sounds like an overheard conversation:  “No, really?” “Yes, it’s true!”  “Well, I never!”  Click on the Typical Voice link about halfway down the page on the left at this link and give it a listen.

The other beautiful bird that Ben saw is the Tree Swallow (Tachycineta bicolor).  One of the great avian acrobats, these iridescent blue and black swallows swoop and glide over the meadows and marshes, literally swallowing insects on the fly.

Swallow flying
Tree swallows scoop up insects on the fly as they soar above the fields and marsh.

Tree swallows make nests in natural cavities or woodpecker holes in dead trees or human-provided nesting boxes, which become important as we humans cut down dead trees.  Interestingly, they line their nests with the feathers of other birds, i.e.,  they literally “feather their nests!”  Swallows compete for feathers and may snitch from other swallows or try to catch one in mid-air if it’s dropped by a careless swallow.

two swallows on house 2
A rare opportunity to see 2 tree swallows at rest on a nesting box at 7 Ponds Nature Center.

And Here Come the Butterflies! 

The number of  butterflies fluttering across the old farm field next to the eastern path increases all the time. The gorgeous Yellow Swallowtail (Papilio glaucus), also known as the Eastern Tiger Swallowtail, was in the US in 1587 when it was the first drawn by a member of Sir Walter Raleigh’s third expedition to Virginia.  You can see why it caught his eye.  The male is always yellow with four tiger stripes.

Yellow swallowtail butterfly closeup on bull thistle
The male swallowtail is always yellow with 4 black tiger stripes.

The females look similar but have showy iridescent blue spots at the bottom of their hindwings. Look carefully and you’ll see them from below here.

female swallowtail
Look carefully and you’ll see the showy blue spots at the bottom of the female Yellow Swallowtail’s hindwing.

Or the female can take a black form (or morph) and then you can really see the blue spots.

black morph female swallowtail
The female Yellow Swallowtail sometimes takes on a black form, or morph.

I always thought these were Black Swallowtails, but they are a completely different butterfly!

This immigrant from the southern US is the Red Admiral (Vanessa atalanta), a medium-sized butterfly with wonderfully bright colors.

Red Admiral2
The Red Admiral has striking colors on the dorsal (upper) side of his wings.

But  look how well it camouflages itself when it settles down to eat!

red admiral camouflage
The underside (ventral) of the Red Admiral’s wings provides excellent camouflage when it lights to eat or rest.

Two related but smaller, more modest butterflies have also just emerged from their chrysalises.  The Cabbage White (Pieris rapae) does love cabbage but also loves purple, blue and yellow flowers.  The males have one black spot on their wings and the females have two.  Here’s a group of males sipping at a moist spot on the path behind the center pond in order to replace the nutrients they pass to the female when they mate.

cabbage butterfly
Male cabbage butterflies sip nutrients from moist earth to nourish themselves after mating.

The cabbage butterfly’s relatives in the Pieridae family, the yellow Common or Clouded Sulphur (Colias philodice) like clover and other flowers of the legume family.

Sulphur
Sulphurs are yellow relatives of the Cabbage Butterflies and emerge from their chrysalises at about the same time.

And last, the tiny Pearl Cresent (Phyciodes tharos) with only about a 1.5 inch wingspan, who uses asters as host plants for its caterpillars.

Gorgon checkerspot
The Pearl Crescent is tiny, about 1.5 inches, and uses asters as host plants for its caterpillars..

 COMING ATTRACTIONS

– The tadpoles of the Green Frog (Lithobates clamitans) are now roiling the usually calm waters of the pond next to the playground and other ponds and pools in the park.

green frog tadpole
The tadpole of the Green Frog is roiling  waters all over the park at the moment.

A few adult Green Frogs are around, but wait for the chorus to begin!  They sound like a whole bunch of individual banjo strings being plucked at once!  

Green frog
The Green Frog’s voice sounds like a plucked banjo string.

– The female Canada Geese (Branta canadensis) are nesting comfortably, many of them on top of old muskrat “push-ups” which muskrats build from mud and vegetation to protect themselves and their young.  (By building push-ups and eating vegetation, muskrats keep open water for aquatic birds.) The two species seem to co-exist quite nicely.    So, goslings should be making an appearance any day now, if they haven’t already!

Goose nest high and dry
Geese keep high and dry by nesting on the tops of “push-ups” made by muskrats out of mud and vegetation.

Please share your discoveries in the comments section below and help me enrich the picture of summer’s grand opening  at Bear Creek Nature Park.

*Quick footnote:  My sources for information, as well as Dr. Ben VanderWeide, are as follows: Stokes Nature Guides:  A Guide to Bird Behavior Volumes 1-3, Allaboutbirds.org, the website of the Cornell Ornithology Lab at Cornell University; Wikipedia; http://www.butterfliesandmoths.org; Herbarium of the University of Michigan at michiganflora.net.; various Michigan Field Guides by Stan Tekiela;Butterflies of Michigan Field Guide by Jaret C. Daniels