Tag Archives: Shrubby Cinquefoil

Out and About in Oakland: Rare Beauty on the Wet Prairie Again! (Paint Creek Trail)

Blog post and photos by Cam Mannino
Blog post and photos
by Cam Mannino

As runners and bikers sail along beside you on the Paint Creek Trail, perhaps you, like me, wonder if they notice all the beauty around them.  But sometimes a walker misses glorious sites as well.  This week and last, Oakland Township Stewardship Manager Ben VanderWeide alerted me to two beautiful wildflowers that I would have missed!  Both were gracing  lesser known areas of our park system, areas full of life and a surprising variety of native wildflowers.  I thought I should share them with other walkers, runners and bikers who might have missed them, too.

The Wet Prairie (Paint Creek Trail):  Michigan Lilies and More

A “wet prairie” sounds like an oxymoron, doesn’t it?  Prairies are always sunny, but the soil can range from wet to very dry.  Sometimes, in the flood plain of a stream, or other area with a shallow water table, special fire-adapted wildflowers and grasses find a footing. Conditions are perfect at this spot on the trail.  The original channel of Paint Creek and its floodplain cross this 10 acre parcel on the west side of the trail.  Last fall, we published a blog of the autumn flowers that bloomed here last year. And in June, we showed the stunning native Yellow Ladyslipper  orchids  (Cypripedium parviflorum) hidden in the grass.  Now look at this summer bloom!

Michigan Lily
Native Michigan Lily near the Wet Prairie on the Paint Creek Trail

How’s that for a spectacular native plant!  The Michigan Lily (Lilium michiganense) might remind you of the non-native Orange Day-Lily (Hemerocallis fulva) or what we used to call “Roadside Lilies.”  But this is a much fancier, native lily.  They don’t last long in hot weather – and deer frequently eat the buds before they bloom, which prevents them re-seeding.  So we’re lucky to have them this year!  Take a look as you hike or bike near the prairie.

Other native wildflowers are blooming on the Wet Prairie now too.  Of course, orange Butterfly Milkweed (Asclepias tuberosa) dots the area.  Here’s Ben’s photo from last summer.

The grand finale, this milkweed takes the show. A beautiful milkweed for your garden, this species form clumps instead of spreading widely.
Butterfly milkweed dots the Wet Prairie with bright orange blossoms. Ben’s photo.

Native Shrubby Cinquefoil (Dasiphora fruticosa)  tilts its blossoms to the sun near the trail, too.

Shrubby Cinquefoil Wet Prairie
Native Shrubby Cinquefoil loves the moist ground and the full sun of the Wet Prairie.

The lavender blooms of native Showy Tick Trefoil (Desmodium canadense) are drying in the heat but the Joe Pye (Eutrochium maculatum), a native wildflower that likes moist feet and sunlight, is just getting ready to go!

Insects swoop from plant to plant in the Wet Prairie searching for either food or shade.  Here  a female Widow Skimmer dragonfly (Libellula luctuosa) pauses on a bare twig.

Widow Skimmer Wet Prairie_edited-1
A female Widow Skimmer dragonfly on the Wet Prairie

This young male Eastern Pondhawk dragonfly (Erythemis simplicollis) still has chevrons on his tail. As he matures, a waxy coating will move up from the tip of his tail, turning his abdomen light blue.  Eastern Pondhawk males fiercely defend about 5 square yards of territory from “intruders,” according to my insect “guru,” the Bug Lady at University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee.

Eastern Pondhawk Dragonfly young
A young male Eastern Pondhawk dragonfly. Males defend about 5 square yards of territory.

A modest brown butterfly paused for a moment on some dried flower heads.  I think it’s a Columbine Duskywing (Erynnis lucilius), but it may be another Duskywing.  I love its striped antennae.

Columbine Duskywing erynnis licilius
A Duskywing butterfly with striped antennae

Native False Sunflowers (Heliopsis helianthoides) shine golden in the  shade beneath the trees just south of the Wet Prairie.

Woodland sunflowers
False Sunflowers west of the Paint Creek Trail near Silverbell Road.

The prescribed burns and removal of invasive shrubs have given the native Black-eyed Susans (Rudbeckia hirta) lots of room just at the edge of the tree canopy south of the Wet Prairie.

Black Susans PC Wet Prairie

That Other Wildflower Surprise –  Gallagher Creek Park

Ben notified me too about another native that’s blooming right now at the little 15 acre park at the corner of Silverbell and Adams Road.  So I hurried over  to see it, of course, and wow!  So many native flowers, so much birdsong, a frog, dragonflies, butterflies – all kinds of life is emerging in that small park at the headwaters of Gallagher Creek!   I plan to dedicate a piece to it very soon.  But  this week I wanted to share this  elegant spike of white blossoms  called  Culver’s Root (Veronicastrum virginicum) because  its blooms only last a couple of weeks.  So if you want to see it, hurry over to Gallagher Creek Park, too.  The flowers are just to the west of the parking lot,  swaying gracefully  in the tall grass.

Culver's Root – Version 2
Culver’s Root, an elegant native wildflower, swaying in the breeze at Gallagher Creek Park.

It’s wonderful to have friends who share their discoveries with you.  Thank you, Dr. Ben!  I hope some of you readers will use the comment section when you make discoveries in our township parks.  The more eyes we have looking, the more beauty we’ll discover in the meadows, prairies and forests when we’re “Out and About in Oakland!

Footnote:  My sources for information are as follows: Ritland, D. B., & Brower, L. P. (1991); Stokes Nature Guides: A Guide to Bird Behavior Volumes 1-3, Allaboutbirds.org, the website of the Cornell Ornithology Lab at Cornell University; Wikipedia; http://www.butterfliesandmoths.org; Herbarium of the University of Michigan at michiganflora.net; various Michigan Field Guides by Stan Tekiela; Butterflies of Michigan Field Guide by Jaret C. Daniels; University of Wisconsin's Bug Lady at www4.uwm.edu/fieldstation/naturalhistory/bugoftheweek/ for insect info; http://www.migrationresearch.org/mbo/id/rbgr.html for migration info; invaluable wildflower identification from local expert, Maryann Whitman; experienced birder Ruth Glass, bird walk leader at Stoney Creek Metro Park for bird identification; Birds of North America Online; Audubon.org; Nature in Winter by Donald Stokes, Trees in My Forest by Bernd Heinrich, Winter World by Bernd Heinrich, Savannah River Ecology Lab (Univ of Georgia); Tortoise Trust website www.tortoisetrust.org;  An Orchard Invisible: A Natural History of Seeds by Jonathan Silvertown; The Ecology of Plants by Gurevitch, Scheiner and Fox; other sites as cited in the text.

Two (or so) Magical Acres: Our Wet Prairie

Off the western side of the Paint Creek Trail just north of Silver Bell Road, a sign indicates that you’re passing through a “wet prairie.”  Big Blue Stem grasses bend in the wind while all kinds of beautiful wildflowers flourish in the grass below.  If you ever thought “native wildflower” just meant Canada Goldenrod or Black-Eyed Susans,  you’re in for a treat.

Sign for wet prairie
The Wet Prairie is located north of Silver Bell Road on the Paint Creek Trail.

As many of you know, most native plants in this area are adapted to fire because of thousands of years of natural fires and regular burning by Native Americans for purposes of clearing and fertilizing the land.  Once the trains came through in the 19th century,   the sparks from the tracks, where the trail runs now, regularly started fires in the area.  Native prairie and savanna plants survived because they had adapted to fire; non-native plants were less likely to do so.

Once the trail replaced the train tracks, stewardship was required to preserve this very special environment.  Over the years, the Parks Commission has worked to restore this patch of wet prairie and its beautiful native plants.  Last year, Stewardship Manager Ben VanderWeide and his crew worked long hours from Silver Bell  Road to the Wet Prairie,  removing Autumn Olive and other non-native plants, trees and shrubs that lined the trail and crowded the field, shading out native plants. We thought you might enjoy seeing  a small sampling of the beauty that’s begun to flourish in this special area because of those efforts.

Native Wildflowers of the Wet Prairie

Flowers in wet prairies like this  are special – and very lovely.  Bring binoculars so you can scan the field since the area is too fragile for hiking or paths at this stage.

Blog post and photos by Cam Mannino
Blog post and photos by Cam Mannino

I was lucky enough to be introduced, very carefully, to this magical place by Dr. Ben who let me take photos so we could share the native beauty that exists in this special area.

 

We saw deep sky blue Fringed Gentian (Gentianopsis crinita) in several stages of unfurling.

Fringed Gentian bud
A Fringed Gentian bud with its fringes curled around it.
Fringed gentian opening1
Fringed Gentian buds starting to open
Fringed gentian opening 2
Fringed Gentian bud a bit further along

And finally, an open one!  Look at the square opening made by the four leaves!

Fringed Gentian3
The four leaves of the Fringed Gentian make a lovely square opening at the center of the blossom.

Another deep blue beauty, Bottle Gentian (Gentiana andrewsii), never opens its blossoms,  but Ben saw a native Bumblebee pry one open and climb inside to get at the pollen!

Bottle Gentian Wet Prairie
The flowers of Bottle Gentian never open so bumblebees just pry them open and squeeze inside!

And here’s Ben’s photo of a bumblebee emerging from a Bottle Gentian at Gallagher Creek Park.  Quite a moment to catch, eh?

Ben's photo of bumblebee bottle gentian
Dr. Ben’s photo of a bumblebee emerging from a Bottle Gentian blossom that it squeezed into.

Tiny orchids appear here and there in the Wet Prairie as well.  Who knew we had orchids?  You can see where it got its name, Prairie Ladies Tresses (Spiranthes magnicamporum). It looks like a spiraling french braid.

Ladies tresses orchid
A native orchid with the lovely name, Ladies Tresses

One of my favorite Wet Prairie wildflowers is Grass-of-Parnassus (Parnassia glauca) but until this week I’d only seen one or two blooms.  Here’s a closeup from a few years ago of one with its dark green stripes.

Grass-of-Parnassus
A green-striped Grass-of-Parnassus bloom, a native wet prairie wildflower.

Now, thanks to the stewardship efforts of the Parks and Recreation Commission, they’re sprinkled all over the prairie!  They’re a bit beyond their peak now, but they’re still lovely.

Grass-of-Parnassus
A group of Grass-of-Parnassus blooms last week, just a bit beyond peak bloom but still striking with their dark green stripes

White Snake Root  (Ageratina altissima) grows in the prairie and it’s plentiful on the east side of the trail, flowing downhill toward the creek.

White Snakeroot
White Snake Root spills down the hillside that leads to the creek across the trail from the prairie.

Cylindrical Blazing Star (Liatris cylindracea), another native plant that was plentiful a couple of weeks ago on the Wet Prairie, is finishing up now, but here are a few late blooms and then its very lovely fruit in the photo just below.

Blazing Star
Cylindrical Blazing Star with a few blooms left on the stalk

The fruits of the False Asphodel (Triantha glutinosa) add a touch of fall color to the prairie.

blazing star fruit_edited-1
The fruit of False Asphodel  with very fitting fall colors

Turtlehead (Chelone glabra), with its descriptive  if not very elegant common name,  is another special plant in the Wet Prairie. It can also be found in other high quality wetlands in our area.

Turtlehead
Turtlehead is a very practical name for a rather elegant wet prairie plant.

Of course, familiar native wildflowers are present in this prairie as well, like Canada Goldenrod.  But there are other kinds of goldenrod here too, like Riddell’s Goldenrod (Solidago riddellii) which is much less common because it frequents wetlands, including wet prairies, rather than dry fields and roadsides.

Riddell's Goldenrod
Riddell’s Goldenrod is less common in our area than our old friend, Canada Goldenrod.

And across the trail from the prairie, we saw Stiff Goldenrod (Solidago rigida).  I love the way the soft leaves clasp the stalk.

Stiff goldenrod?
Stiff Goldenrod is also less common than the familiar Canada Goldenrod we see along the roadsides and in dry open fields.

The dry Old Fields in our parks tend to have non-native Cinquefoils but the Wet Prairie hosts a native Michigan species, called Shrubby Cinquefoil (Dasiphora fruticosa) which is often used in landscape settings as well as being found in wild wet areas.

Shrubby cinquefoil native
Shrubby Cinquefoil is a native cinquefoil rather than the non-natives that frequently show up in abandoned fields.

We saw another old friend, one late bloom of  the gorgeous orange Butterfly Milkweed (Asclepias tuberosa). 

butterfly weed3
We saw a late bloom of Butterfly Milkweed, a native wild flower found often in dry areas.

Most of the the Butterfly Milkweed plants, though, are past blooming and are producing their elegant tapered pods, the fruits that contain their seed, seen below spilling onto the ground to be carried by the wind for next year’s crop.

Butterfly Milkweed pods
These slender, tapered pods are the fruit that contains the seeds of Butterfly Milkweed
Butterfly weed seed
Butterfly Milkweed seeds with the silk that will help them disperse when the wind catches them.

Although its small white flowers are done for the year, I love the deep purple stems of Northern Bedstraw (Galium boreale), which are still standing among the flowers.

Northern Bedstaw
Northern Bedstraw’s white blossoms are gone, leaving these deep purple stems.

Creatures of the Wet Prairie

A Monarch butterfly(Danaus plexippus)rested in the shade of a tree after flitting across the Wet Prairie.

Monarch on dead leaf
A female Monarch butterfly rested briefly on a leaf after flitting across the Wet Prairie.

A curious European Praying Mantis (Mantis religiosa)  paused on a Little Bluestem stalk where she might have been planning to lay eggs, as these non-native insects do in September.

Praying Mantis 2 Wet Prairie
A European Praying Mantis may have been planning to lay eggs on a hole in a grass stem.

A Green Darner (Anax junius), a large, very agile dragonfly,   took a break from patrolling for insect pray and rested in the shade.

Green Darner2
A Green Darner, a large dragonfly, escapes the noonday sun.

And a tiny Snapping Turtle (Chelydra serpentina) hatchling, about the size of a 50 cent piece, tried  to make it across the trail.  We gave it a little lift to the grass in the direction it was heading.

Snapping turtle hatchling
A tiny Snapping Turtle hatchling struggles to get across the trail.

Native Grasses of the Wet Prairie

Native grasses thrive in the Wet Prairie as well.  Big Blue Stem (Andropogon gerardii), a classic native prairie grass, towers over everything with its characteristic turkey foot.

Big Blue Stem in the wind
Big Blue Stem, a classic prairie grass, towers over the other grasses and wildflowers.

But Dr. Ben made me aware of other native prairie grasses that I’d wouldn’t have noticed without help:

Canada Wild Rye (Elymus canadensis) bobs in the breeze below the Big Blue Stem.

Canadian Wild Rye
Canadian Wild Rye bobs in the breeze below the Big Blue Stem.

According to the Missouri Botanical Garden, the scientific name of this grass, Sorghastrum nutans, means “a swaying, poor imitation of Sorghum.”   I think I prefer the common name, Indian Grass!

Indian Grass
Indian Grass is the common name for this native grass in the Wet Prairie

It’s not difficult to see where native Bottlebrush Grass (Elymus hystrix) got its name!

Bottlebrush grass
A native plant aptly named Bottlebrush Grass.

Restoring and preserving the very special habitat of the Wet Prairie is a way to preserve our history for future generations and to encourage plant diversity.  But it takes a lot of effort!  Please keep an eye on the “Stewardship” tab on our home page here at the Natural Areas Notebook for volunteer opportunities.  Perhaps you can help Dr. Ben with the PRC’s ongoing effort to care for the Wet Prairie with its unusual selection of beautiful wildflowers and graceful grasses.

*Footnote:  My sources for information, as well as Oakland Township Stewardship Manager Dr. Ben VanderWeide, are as follows: Ritland, D. B., & Brower, L. P. (1991). The viceroy butterfly is not a Batesian mimic; Stokes Nature Guides:  A Guide to Bird Behavior Volumes 1-3, Allaboutbirds.org, the website of the Cornell Ornithology Lab at Cornell University; Wikipedia; http://www.butterfliesandmoths.org; Herbarium of the University of Michigan at michiganflora.net.; various Michigan Field Guides by Stan Tekiela; Butterflies of Michigan Field Guide by Jaret C. Daniels; University of Wisconsin's Bug Lady at www4.uwm.edu/fieldstation/naturalhistory/bugoftheweek/ for beetle info http://www.migrationresearch.org/mbo/id/rbgr.html for migration info, and invaluable wildflower identification from local expert, Maryann Whitman.

Prairie Flowers: A Changing Mosaic of Color

It’s too easy to just visit an area once and think you know it. Visit your favorite woods, stream, or prairie once a week this summer and really pay attention to what you see. It is always changing.

I was reminded of this constant change while preparing for upcoming invasive shrub removal at the Paint Creek Heritage Area Wet Prairie. I couldn’t find the blue-eyed grass I’d noticed a week earlier, and the prairie grasses were growing quickly! What I really enjoyed, though, were the new flowers that had opened, spreading swaths of new color into the patchwork of the prairie.

The first yellow flowers of shrubby cinquefoil (Dasiphora fruticosa) had just emerged, foretelling a golden show in the coming week. You might recognize this attractive shrub because it is sometimes used in landscaping. Shrubby cinquefoil is fairly common just beyond the park sign along the Paint Creek Trail, so you won’t have to look very hard to find it.

Shrubby cinquefoil (Dasiphora fruticosa) is a low shrub that is found in open, wet ground in high quality natural areas.
Shrubby cinquefoil (Dasiphora fruticosa) is a low shrub that is found in open, wet ground in high quality natural areas.

Pale purple spikes dotted the prairie. This species was a new one for me – my best guess is pale spiked lobelia (Lobelia spicata), but let me know if think otherwise! The “3+2” pattern of the petals resembled the close relative cardinal flower (Lobelia cardinalis): notice the 3 bottom lobes of petals and the 2 top lobes. The delicate purple flowers seemed to be more abundant in slightly disturbed areas.

Pale spike lobelia (Lobelia spicata) splashed delicate color throughout the prairie. Another flower that should be easy to spot if you get out to the wet prairie this week.
Pale spiked lobelia (Lobelia spicata) splashed delicate color throughout the prairie. Another flower that should be easy to spot if you get out to the wet prairie this week.

I’d noticed hairy beard-tongue a week or so earlier, but I can’t resist showing it to you. Like a lot of  common names, hairy beard-tongue is a rough translation of the Latin name, Penstemon hirsutus. Scientists were very descriptive when they named these plants! Hairy beard-tongue likes sandy, open ground, including prairies and the oak barrens that used to be abundant in this area.

Hairy beard-tongue is an attractive plant and does well in landscaping. Help out native pollinators and add some flair to your flower beds!
Hairy beard-tongue is an attractive plant and does well in landscaping. Help out native pollinators and add some flair to your flower beds!
If you look closely at hairy beard-tongue (Penstemon hirsutus), you'll notice what looks like a hairy tongue coming out of the middle of the flower.
If you look closely at hairy beard-tongue (Penstemon hirsutus), you’ll notice what looks like a hairy tongue coming out of the middle of the flower.

Lastly, butterfly weed (Asclepias tuberosa) is getting ready to pop! Next week we’ll have a glorious display of deep orange milkweed flowers all along the Paint Creek Trail north of Silverbell. Don’t miss it!

The orange of the butterfly weed (Asclepias tuberosa) flowers is beginning to color the flower buds.
The orange of the butterfly weed (Asclepias tuberosa) flowers is beginning to color the flower buds.

Let me know if you see these plants flowering at Paint Creek Heritage Area – Wet Prairie, or if you see something new!