Tag Archives: Widow Skimmer

Draper Twin Lake Park (Eastern Portion): A Rainbow of Butterflies, Fledglings Foraging and a Golden Prairie

The Northern Prairie on the east side of Draper Twin Lake Park in July

In June, the prairie pictured above at Draper Twin Lake Park was a sea of white Yarrow (Achillea millefolium) and Ox-eye Daisies (Leucanthemum vulgaris) dotted with golden Sand Coreopsis (Coreopsis lancelolata). Today, as you can see, it is carpeted in the bright yellow of Gray-headed Coneflowers (Ratibida pinnata). Such a remarkable transformation in only one month! (You’ll want to park near the small garage at 1181 Inwood Road to visit the east side of Draper Twin Lake Park.)

Text and photos by
Cam Mannino

Last week Ben VanderWeide, our township’s Natural Areas Stewardship Manager, had to mow large sections of the golden prairie to prevent seed production in the invasive and aggressive Spotted Knapweed (Centaurea stoebe). We hope the mowing will reduce knapweed abundance and give native plants a competitive edge as they continue to fill in throughout the field. The prairie, though, is still a beautiful sight since it signals the return to our parks of graceful native wildflowers and grasses that sway in a summer breeze.

Native Canada Wild Rye nods and sways within the gold of the Draper prairie.

Native Wildflowers Invite An Abundance of Butterflies

The more our prairies are restored, the more they attract a whole panoply of colorful butterflies. Giant Swallowtails (Papilio cresphontes) seem to be everywhere this summer. It may be that our hot July has encouraged more of them than usual to migrate up from the south to breed. And once they arrive, our prairies provide generously for them. This huge butterfly flutters constantly while feeding, though it floats elegantly between flowers, beating its wings briefly and then gliding along.

The Giant Swallowtail flutters constantly while feeding though it is an elegant flyer.

An Eastern Tiger Swallowtail (Papilio glaucus) swooped out of a patch of Plumeless Thistle (Carduus acanthoides) and soared across the prairie.  I believe the blue spots at the bottom of the wings mean it was a female. I never noticed before that they have such a fancy striped body!

An Eastern Tiger Swallowtail female exits from a stand of Field Thistle.

Red-spotted Purples (Limenitis arthemis) love open areas on forest edges, which makes the prairie at Draper Twin Lake Park a perfect habitat. Their blue/black appearance makes them easy to confuse with Black or Spicebush Swallowtail butterflies. The big difference is that all Swallowtails are so called because of the characteristic drooping points at the bottom of the hind wings. Red-spotted Purples have scalloped hind wings but no “swallowtails.” (Click on photos to enlarge; hover cursor for captions.)

A small Viceroy (Limenitis archippus) butterfly landed on a Queen Anne’s Lace flower (Daucus carota) in front of the birding group.  Mike Kent, a fellow birder, slowly and gently extended his finger and this little one climbed right on. A few moments after this photo, it started “tasting” his skin with its long proboscis! Quite a magical moment!

A Viceroy butterfly climbs onto a birder’s finger from a nearby bloom.

A few smaller butterflies and other flying insects are fluttering across the prairie this summer. The Eastern Comma (Polygonia comma) is an early spring arrival and looks a bit battered by now.

An Eastern Comma that looks a bit battered!

The tiny white Carrot Seed Moth (Sitochroa palealis) is a non-native from Europe who, consequently, sips on many non-native European plants like Queen Anne’s Lace or here on non-native Spotted Knapweed. Thanks to Dwayne Badgero on the Butterflying Michigan Facebook page for identifying this one for me.

The Carrot Seed Moth is a non-native who feeds largely, though not exclusively, on non-native plants like the spotted knapweed shown here.

I saw the lovely American Copper (Lycaena phlaeas) on the Draper prairie earlier in the season, but never got a shot.  The photo below is one I took at Cranberry Lake Park.

I saw an American Copper on the prairie, but this photo was taken at Cranberry Lake.

This juvenile male Widow Skimmer (Libellula luctuosa) has a faint white band on its wing which will get bolder as it matures. Also, its abdomen will slowly develop a white covering. The adult females have no white band and keep the darker abdomen with the golden stripes.

The juvenile male Widow Skimmer has a faint white wing band that will be more noticeable when it matures.

Carolina Locust (Dissosteira carolina) used its stiff wings to fly up onto a Gray-headed Coneflower as the birders walked by.

A Carolina Locust grasps a Gray-headed Coneflower.

Hard-working Bird Parents are Busy Feeding the Young

On entering the eastern side of Draper Twin Lake Park last Sunday, my husband and I heard a clamor in a snag (standing dead tree) on the eastern edge of the field. A large band of Barn Swallow youngsters (Hirundo rustica) were hanging out together, a few still being quickly fed by their parents.  Stokes’ Guide to Bird Behavior (Vol. 2) explains. “Often groups of juveniles from first broods gather into flocks and feed and perch together.” We counted over 20 in or near the snag at the same time. Later that same week, Ben reported having 50 or more Barn Swallows flying right next to him and his mower as he worked on the prairie. Very social birds! Young Barn Swallows have shorter, rounder tails, rather than the longer, deeply forked ones of their parents. (Use pause button if time is needed for captions.)

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Two larger fledglings appeared on the trail between the marsh and parking area. They hopped along the edge, pecking at the earth in a desultory fashion, but repeatedly stared up longingly into the trees. We didn’t recognize them at first. Then my husband noticed a sharp clicking in the trees and we suddenly spotted an adult Brown Thrasher (Toxostoma rufum) moving stealthily through leafy branches overhead. Aha! These were two juvenile Thrashers out practicing their foraging skills! The telltale field marks are the light colored heads, scalloped backs and gray (rather than yellow) eyes.

Brown Thrasher adults are notoriously hard to see. On Sunday, the adult stayed hidden in tangled bushes, vines and leafy branches, as Thrashers most often do. But after a frustrating few minutes, the annoyed adult emerged and demonstrated his displeasure at our proximity to its young with a yellow-eyed glare and a wild tail display!

The adult Brown Thrasher show his irritation at our presence with a fantastic tail display.

In spring, high in the treetops, Brown Thrasher males sing their wildly variable song, made by mimicking Flickers, the Tufted Titmouse, the Cardinal and others. And that click we heard overhead on Sunday was an alarm/warning call that both Cornell Lab of Ornithology and the Stokes’ Guide describe as sounding like a smacking kiss! And it does! Listen to both the creative chaos of the song and smack! call at this Cornell link.

Restoring Our Natural Heritage in So Many Ways

Donna Perkins, a birder and one of our volunteer nest box monitors, waist deep in goldenrod on a summer morning.

The hard work of Ben VanderWeide and his crew in clearing, seeding and tending the natural areas of our township is paying off magnificently. Just as expected, the wildflowers and grasses flourish when given the opportunity. And as they return to their former glory, back come the butterflies, the grasshoppers, the dragonflies, and the bees. And after them, we hope, may come more of the prairie birds that used to live with us, like the Eastern Meadowlark (Sturnella magna), Henslow’s Sparrow (Ammodramus henslowii), and perhaps even the long absent Northern Bob-White (Colinus virginianus). Already less common prairie birds, like the Savannah Sparrow  (Passerculus sandwichensis) which I saw earlier this summer at Draper Twin Lake Park, are looking for mates as they ride the stems of prairie plants.

Ben’s stewardship program is also helping to restore bird populations and providing citizen science data by setting up nesting boxes in two parks and along the Paint Creek trail. The volunteers who monitor these boxes watched multiple broods of Eastern Bluebirds, Tree Swallows, House Wrens and Black-capped Chickadees go from egg to fledgling just this year.

Birders on a Wednesday morning in July at Draper Twin Lake Park.

And let’s not forget us humans. We’re also out in the our parks more these days! As Ben, his crew and volunteers restore our colorful prairies, people come out to enjoy the natural areas that township residents have been committed to preserving and protecting for many years. Our birding group has grown consistently year by year, exploring and recording bird sightings for Cornell’s eBird citizen science program even on the coldest winter, the rainiest spring and the warmest summer mornings. The schedule is under “Events” at the top of the page. Please come join us! Ben will even lend you binoculars. We’re restoring ourselves as well while we preserve, protect, and delight in our small green corner of the world.

Footnote: My sources for information, besides Oakland Township's Stewardship Manager Ben VanderWeide, are as follows: inaturalist.org; Allaboutbirds.org, the website of the Cornell Lab of Ornithology at Cornell University; Wikipedia; Herbarium of the University of Michigan at michiganflora.net; various Michigan Field Guides by Stan Tekiela; Butterflies of Michigan Field Guide by Jaret C. Daniels, A Guide to Bird Behavior Vols.1-3 by Donald W and Lillian Q.Stokes, and others as cited in the text.

This Week at Bear Creek: Early Summer at Bear Creek – Serenity or Drama, Your Choice

How can anyone resist Bear Creek Nature Park in late June?!

Blog post and photos by Cam Mannino
Blog post and photos by Cam Mannino

Flowers keep offering up more and more color.  Fledglings are trying out their wings and begging their parents for food.  Trees whisper back and forth as the full green leaves of summer rustle and wave, soothing the frayed edges of our lives. But if you’re in the mood for a little excitement, you can always keep an eye out for the little dramas that snakes and other fascinating predators provide.  Some examples:

Find A Little Serenity…

Look at this clear invitation from what I like to call The Lane, the central path in the park lined with Black Walnut trees (Juglans nigra) that I imagine the farmer planted there years ago for nuts, beautiful wood and just their sheer magnificence.

Lane in summer
The central trail in Bear Creek, lined with native Black Walnuts, invites you to wander and explore a summer day.

Up near Gunn Road, there are water trails leading into the marsh where muskrats, ducks, and geese cruise into and out of the reeds in the summer sun.  The curviness of this trail, caught by my husband Reg this week,  makes me think it was made by a muskrat but Ben thinks its width might indicate a goose.  Or maybe a family of ducks?  Anyway, it makes me wish I could follow.

Water trail into the marsh
A trail leads into the marsh where we can’t follow. A muskrat, a goose, a family of ducks? Who knows?

Frog music is part of the charm of a summer day.  The Leopard Frog (Rana pipiens)is out and about now because the breeding season is past and they can wander away from the water.  They are beautiful spotted frogs and for reasons not quite clear, their numbers are falling in Michigan.  So keep an eye out for this emerald green, leopard-spotted frog wherever it’s moist.

leopard frog
The Leopard Frog’s numbers are falling in Michigan. But we do have them at Bear Creek!

The Green Frog Tadpoles (Rana clamitans)in the Center Pond are a-l-l-lmost frogs.  Here’s a nice big fat tadpole with tiny legs that Reg spotted there this week. And the bigger ones in the playground pond are already making their banjo-plucking calls!

tadpole w legs
A Green Frog tadpole in the center pond is developing tiny frog legs.

Insects add a lot of color and grace as they swoop over the meadows and ponds.  Out near the  marsh, you’re likely to see the elegant Widow Skimmers.  Here’s a  male with a black/dark brown band near his body and a white strip farther out on the wing,  but this one is immature.  When he’s fully grown, his abdomen will turn light blue.

Widow Skimmer male
This juvenile male Widow Skimmer has the dark wing band near his body followed by the white band characteristic of males, but his abdomen still has the gold stripes of a juvenile.

The female Widow Skimmer dresses only in somber colors without the white band,  though she shares gold stripes on the abdomen with the juvenile male.

widow skimmer female
The female Widow Skimmer dresses only in somber colors.

A rare sight but one that occurs this time of the year is the appearance of the Baltimore Checkerspot (Euphydryas phaeton), surely the most beautiful of this family of butterflies, called the Brushfoots.  I’ve seen one only once at Bear Creek,  but it was in the third week of June so be on the lookout!  This smaller butterfly (1.75″-2.5″) with orange-tipped antennae is eye-catching from above.

baltimore checkerspot top3
The upper (dorsal) side of the Baltimore Checkerspot is striking against the green grass.

And it’s even more eye-catching on the underside!  See that orange face?

baltimore checkerspot 4
The lower (ventral) side of the Baltimore Checkerspot is even more eye-catching than the upper (dorsal) side! Look at that orange face!

More modest members of the Brushfoot family, but much more common visitors, are the fritillaries.  Here is the smaller one we’re seeing now in June, which I think is the Meadow Fritillary (Boloria bellona), but again, don’t quote me.  (Anyone out there a butterfly expert?)

Meadow Fritillary
The Meadow Fritillary is a smaller, more modest member of the Brushfoot family of butterflies.

Ben tells me that in the woods near the marsh, the fruits of the  Wild Geranium (Geranium maculatum) are now springing open,  flinging out five seeds per plant!  Go geraniums!  While out in the Old Fields of Bear Creek,  native and non-native flowers turn their faces to the sun.  Here’s our native Old Field/Common Cinquefoil (Potentilla simplex) in one of the Native Plant Beds near the shed.

common cinquefoil
Old-Field/Common Cinquefoil is a native wildflower with a very invasive cousin seen below!

And here is its invasive cousin out in the fields, Rough-fruited Cinquefoil (Potentilla recta),  a cultivated version that appears much more often, unfortunately, than our native one!  You’ll see it on the way into the park from Snell Road once you leave the woods.

rough fruited cinquefoil 2
Beware of garden flowers that “naturalize.” What that means is that in the right situation,  they can be invasive like this Rough-Fruited Cinquefoil.

Rough-fruited Cinquefoil’s sharply defined, heart-shaped petals and paler color was no doubt  pretty in its original garden but unfortunately, it  “naturalized,” and is now taking the place of our native Old Field Cinquefoil which is only seen right now in the Native Plant Beds near the shed. Every time that happens, we lose a little of the rich diversity that nature provided us for us here in Oakland Township.

Other invasives aren’t necessarily cultivars,  human-bred plants.  They are  plants from other natural environments that end up here and  get carried away, growing aggressively.  Unfortunately, this applies to the prosaically named but quite pretty  Bladder Campion (Silene vulgarism).  This plant which is actually eaten in certain parts of the world, originated in Eurasia and is now found in Bear Creek on what I call the “Steep Slope Path”  that runs north/south on the western side of the park near Snell.

bladder campion
Bladder Campion, with the descriptive but non-poetic name, is an invasive plant from Eurasia.

However, this little beauty, Deptford Pink (Dianthus armeria), is a Non-Native that exists quite peacefully with our native plants, peeking shyly out among the Big Guys.   There’s some edging their way into the Native Plant Bed in the driveway circle but there’s some to enjoy as well on the path that runs along the west side of the playground pond.

deptford pink
The Deptford Pink is one of those non-native plants that co-exists with our native plants.

Appreciate Nature’s Dramas!

While all this color emerges and the air is filled with bird song, frog music and “tree talk,”  dramas unfold in Bear Creek as well.

Remember those Eastern Raccoons Kits (Procyon lotor) we featured in May?  Well, the mother  (here in a previous year) is in charge of feeding those kits until September.

raccoon in hole
Mother Raccoons need to feed their kits and are on the hunt for turtle and bird eggs, among other foods.

This week Ben saw evidence that part of their current diet is  turtle eggs which the raccoon (or perhaps a fox)  dug out of the soft earth where the turtle had laid them. Here’s the evidence I saw a few years ago.

opened turtle egg
A turtle egg probably dug up by a hungry raccoon or possibly a fox.

A Robin’s egg might be available too, which is one of the reasons, as reported last week, that Robins have 3 broods a year to keep their numbers up! Lovely “robin’s egg blue,” eh?

robin egg
Lots of animals eat bird eggs – squirrels if they happen across them, raccoons, foxes and snakes, though they swallow them whole!

Some interesting, quite harmless  snakes slide through the grass right now, so don’t let them startle you!  They’re much more afraid of you than you of them, believe me!  The small (9-12 inch), shy Brown Snake (Storeria dekayl) , which can be beige, brown or gray, appears now and then in the Bear Creek Old Fields, though it likes to spend most of its time under things – or underground, eating worms and slugs.  I particularly like the lovely tortoise shell pattern on the top of its head and the light stripe along its body accentuated by black markings.

brown snake
The shy Brown Snake with the tortoise shell pattern on its head likes to hide under anything available or simply stay underground!

Another beautiful, harmless but much longer snake (2-4 feet) is the Eastern Milk Snake (Lampropeltis triangulum).  The females lay their eggs right now in June.  Contrary to the old farmer’s tale, they do not milk cows!  They, like the Brown Snake,  prefer to hide most of the time.  According to the DNR’s website on Michigan snakes, they eat lots of mice  and  rats  but are “harmless to humans though they may vibrate their tails and bite if cornered or handled.”  So simply watch them glide gracefully and seemingly effortlessly away and all will be well.

Milk Snake
It’s June and the large, but harmless, Milk Snake is probably looking for a place to lay her eggs.

Of course, sometimes it’s the snakes that are the prey!  Just outside Bear Creek last June, we saw a regal but juvenile Cooper’s Hawk which had successfully caught what appeared to be an Eastern Garter Snake (Thamnophis sirtalis). Cooper’s Hawks  chase medium-sized birds, their preferred prey,  through the trees and eat them if they’re successful. According to the Cornell Ornithology Lab, these chases result in a signficant number of Cooper’s Hawks fracturing their wishbones, even though they are very skillful flyers.  They can also make a meal of small mammals and snakes when necessary.  This young hawk is doing what Cooper’s Hawks do with prey, holding it away from its body until it’s dead. Always good to diversify your diet, I suppose.

cr cooper's hawk with snake
A young Cooper’s Hawk is about to make a meal of an Eastern Garter Snake.

COMING ATTRACTIONS:

Earlier I mentioned Native Plant Beds.  When you visit the park from Snell Road, take a tour of the two Native Plant Beds to the north and south of the shed, as well as the native plants in the driveway circle.  Ben’s found some very easy-to-read, attractive plant signs that will help you identify some of what you are seeing.  I’m looking forward to the bloom of the Blue-eyed Grass (Sisyrinchium angustifolium), delicate blue flowers balancing on grass stems!

Blue-eyed Grass
The Blue-eyed Grass in the Native Plant Bed south of the shed is preparing to open its beautiful blue eyes at the tips of the grassy leaves.

Out in the fields, The Common Milkweed (Asclepias syriaca) has big, beautiful buds which open into their hearty, dusty pink flowers shortly.  Don’t you love how the green leaves have pink veins down the middle of them? (You can see that clearly in the bottom leaf here.)

milkweed
Milkweed buds are getting ready to open their dusty pink flowers all over Bear Creek.

And in the marsh and other wet areas, the native Button Bush (Cephalanthus occidentalis) is producing its perfectly round buds.  By mid-July, they will burst into bigger balls covered with tiny white flowers, each shooting out a long yellow-tipped stamen, looking like exploding fireworks or the old-fashioned sputnik!

button bush buds
In mid-July, the native Button Bush will burst into balls of many tiny white flowers each shooting out a long, yellow-tipped stamen. They’ll look like little sputniks!

I hope you’ll find the time some quiet afternoon to let yourself rest in the soothing sounds and beautiful sights of a walk in Bear Creek on a summer day. Or get your heart pumping at the site of a hunting hawk or a snake weaving its way through tall grass.   Time in nature is never wasted.